Competitive Strategy

Competitive Strategy


Large IT companies spend millions on market research to see how they stack up against their competitors, and use this information to figure out how to differ from them and be better.

Automotive manufacturers and importers watch every move competitors make; being first-to-market with a new fashion trend can mean the difference between a clothing brand outselling its competitors or disappearing.

Even cities position themselves against other cities to attract tourists and businesses. Why should competitive strategy (a vital part of marketing strategy) only be relevant to very large organisations? Why not your business?

Being competitive is a core requirement for all businesses irrespective of size. Not-for-profit organisations like charities, schools and religious organisations compete for funds, members and media attention.

Very small businesses and start-ups must wrench business away from competitors or alternatives just to survive. Without a compelling message about the advantages they offer over others, many of these organisations will fail as consumers take the easy route of buying the most popular, the most accessible, or the most familiar.

Related: 10 Epic Businesses Give You Top Advice on Innovation and Strategy

Competitive advantage

More than 30 years ago, Michael Porter defined competitive strategy as: “The plan for how a firm will compete, formulated after evaluating how its strengths and weaknesses compare to those of its competitors.”

This plan should be focused on getting a sustainable advantage over competitors so it’s much more than simply reducing price or having a special offer.

Implementing competitive strategy means taking actions to improve the firm’s market position by gaining a competitive advantage over the organisation’s rivals. The competitive advantage can either be delivering better customer value, or operating more efficiently than competitors, or both.

A lot of start-ups are born because the entrepreneur has an idea for an innovative new product or service that isn’t available from competitors. This doesn’t mean there’s no competition or need for competitive strategy. Customers who buy the new product or service take money from other expenditure, and if the idea is successful it will attract many imitators.

Higher efficiency lowers cost

Better value for customers can mean more offering for less money, higher functionality, a more convenient way of buying, faster delivery, better warranties or a host of other possibilities like making the buying experience more attractive or fun.

The Hooters chain of restaurants uses attractive and outgoing waitresses in hot pants; tyre fitment centres offer filter coffee and sport on a big screen; FNB boasts credit card delivery to your door.

More efficient operations can mean having lower costs of operations, higher quality for the same cost, less administrative overhead from making fewer mistakes, and faster turnaround time.

This last one is equally important for pizza delivery and those who make tooling for car manufacturers, which indicates just how across-the-board the requirement to be competitive is.

Putting together a competitive strategy in four steps

  1. Identify who your competitors are
  2. Find out about the strengths and weaknesses of your competitors’ companies and products
  3. Plan how to compete against them and then implement that
  4. Monitor their reaction to your actions.

This may sound complicated, difficult to do, and hugely time consuming. You may think you only need to improve your offering, but that’s not good enough; you should be doing that continuously anyway.

Competitive strategy can be intense and time consuming but can easily give you opportunities to grow in size and profit far beyond your current forecasts.

Microsoft, Facebook, Nandos and Discovery all started as small operations and grew to dominance in their sectors because they had great competitive strategies. Will your business be a giant of the future?

Who are your competitors?


Many business plans I see list companies selling roughly the same product with or without their strengths and weaknesses, but make no attempt to show how you will compete with them.

This is meaningless. To identify your competitors I suggest you acquaint yourself with Porter’s Five Forces: The bargaining power of buyers and suppliers, the threats of substitutes and new entrants as well as traditional competitors. Then list the four or five most worrying competitors; those that could hurt your business if they chose to.

Many entrepreneurs claim their business is so unique that there really are no competitors. If this is you, ask yourself: “Why am I not yet a billionaire?” It’s likely that your competitive threat comes from customers using their available funds to buy something totally different but equally satisfying or better known to them. There are always competitors or imitators.

Once you have a prioritised list from any of the Five Forces, go and research the companies. There is an amazing amount of information on the Internet, in their publications and in news articles.

Talk to experts in your industry, have someone call them to see how they are treated, get profiles of the management team, identify their suppliers and major customers. Form an opinion about their size and financial and marketing strengths, identify their sales channels.

Investigate how they handled competitive situations in the past. Some companies are relentless litigators, others bully new entrants with price wars or threaten customers and suppliers to stop them from trading with you.

Now list their major strengths compared to your business, their style of operating and competing and look for areas of weakness. However powerful they are they will have weaknesses, search for them, think creatively. Their own size and power may be working against them, slowing responses, being arrogant or management being unaware of how staff treat customers.

Related: Win-Win: Strategically Partner With Your Top Competitors


Working out how you can compete with the identified companies may seem like a daunting task, especially if they are larger and ruthless. On the other hand not working out how you can compete is likely to lead to extremely unpleasant tasks like winding up your business, so take the plunge.

You have two broad opportunities to compete – you can have lower costs or you can be distinctively different in the eyes of the market.

Focus on how you can compete in areas where the competitors are weak. If they are large bullies get the community on your side, if they are bureaucratic be responsive, if they have quality failures make sure you have none, if they are arrogant be especially receptive to customers and their issues.

To be distinctively different means much more than just doing things differently. The difference must be desirable for customers. They must get more value when buying from you; lower prices or higher performance.

Higher performance is not only of the product or service, it may mean higher quality, faster or easier availability or better financial terms. You need to think creatively; look at successful marketers. Motor dealers have service plans, cell phone companies bundle free and paid calls into packages, countries offer tax free ‘holidays’ to encourage industrialists to set up new factories.

Barack Obama used social media to effectively deliver his ‘yes we can’ message to the electorate. Nandos and Kulula made it fun to deal with them. Small businesses can borrow and use these and many other ideas.

While you are planning, you may find that competitive strategies which look as if they would work against one competitor may not be the same for other competitors. Devise the best compromise of actions, focusing on the most threatening competitors.


If your competitive strategies are implemented it is likely you will take business from your competitors. They will not sit back and let you eat their lunch, they are going to react, possibly intensely or viciously. Be prepared.

Keep monitoring their style, strengths and weaknesses at regular intervals. Do the same to your own organisation; you do not want to fall into the same traps they did. This takes time, money and effort, but it is one of the easiest ways to grow your business significantly, and become stronger than competitors.

You will need to adjust your strategies as this happens, but you may now be able to afford formal competitive market research. Have fixed times set aside for competitive strategy focus and monitoring how your strategies are working. It’s well worth the effort.

If you have read to this point you presumably are thinking seriously about competitive strategy. A percentage of you will be thinking that this is something you and your team really should do, but with the workloads of managers of entrepreneurial small and medium businesses, doing it may be a challenge.

You may be thinking, “How do we find time to do all this work? How do we find the money?” It really is a question of priorities. Would it be worth your while to not respond to a tender, to postpone the product development, to again delay the company profile that should have been done months ago?

Only you can answer these questions, but while doing so remember that good competitive strategy may mean you are creating a much better and bigger business over time, but gaining significant short-term advantages. Competitive strategy gets my vote as the priority.

Related: What Exactly is Strategic Planning?

Ed Hatton
Ed Hatton is the owner of The Marketing Director and has consulted to and mentored SMBs in strategy, marketing and sales for almost 20 years. He co-authored an entrepreneurship textbook and is passionate about helping entrepreneurs to succeed.