There are probably hundreds of definitions of leadership. However, at its essence, leadership is influencing others to accomplish results.
Leadership is not so much about what you do and accomplish on your own. It’s about what you are able to help others accomplish. It’s about how you’re able to influence other people to raise their level of performance to new and better heights and contribute more than they previously thought possible.
‘Power-Wielders’ versus ‘Transformational Leaders’
In 1978 a biographer named James McGregor Burns wrote Leadership, in which he described the lives of people he felt were world-class leaders — Ghandi, Mao, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, Stalin and Hitler.
A major conclusion of the book is his differentiation between two types of leaders, whom he called ‘Power-Wielders’ and ‘Transformational Leaders’. The criterion Burns used to make his distinction was the leader’s concern for the wants and needs of their followers.
Putting your team first
According to Burns, power-wielders impose external control on their followers. These are leaders who view their own ends as more important than those of others. In fact, they see others as objects who are either desirable because they are instrumental in helping them gain what they want, or interfere with what they want.
Although these leaders are able to accomplish results in the short-run, they do so at a high price. At best, their tactics result in unthinking followers who learn to keep their heads down and do the minimum possible to avoid getting into trouble. At worst they create an environment of smoldering ill-will or even malicious compliance.
Transformational leaders, on the other hand, care about the needs and interests of their followers as well as their own. They create an environment that elicits motivation and commitment. They view people as capable human beings with their own needs, feelings and opinions. They seek mutually beneficial goals and raise their followers to higher levels of motivation, behaviour and even morality.
These leaders, according to Burns, judge their effectiveness not by their press clippings but by actual social change or the transformation of individual and organisational attitudes and behaviour.
Applying vertical dimension assertiveness
Expanding on Burns’ theme, I want to introduce a two dimensional model of leadership behaviour. Dr Roger K Allen calls the vertical dimension assertiveness, which has to do with concern for self in a business situation. People who are high on assertiveness put their ideas forward and influence the way others think and behave. They like to ‘take charge’ and move other people into action.
They are concerned with results — getting things done and making things happen. People who are low on the assertiveness dimension are less concerned with taking charge and seeking their own outcomes. They are more passive, easy-going, and reluctant to make their views known. They will allow others to take the lead and will let things happen rather than trying to make them happen.
He calls the horizontal dimension empathy, which has to do with concern for others and making sure their needs are met. People who are high on this dimension are sensitive to the needs, opinions and feelings of other people. They show high levels of respect and even goodwill and affection towards others.
They are open-minded, optimistic about others’ motives and capability, and are willing to be influenced by them. Those who are low on this dimension tend to be more self-centred rather than other-centred. They are less aware or responsive to other people’s ideas, feelings or needs and are sceptical about others’ motives and/or abilities.
By combining these two dimensions we come up with four styles of leadership: Dominate, avoid, accommodate, and collaborate. Of course, leaders can fall anywhere along either dimension of the model and so not everyone is a ‘pure’ or extreme type. However, everyone can be characterised as having natural tendencies in one or another of the quadrants. The chart on this page illustrates the differences between these four styles of leadership.
Dominators: Low empathy, high assertiveness
Dominators (Quadrant 1 leaders) are people who lead through command and control. They tell others what to do and expect them to do it. Because they are low on the empathy scale, they don’t care about what others think or how they respond. They simply want results.
They like to run the show with little help or advice from others. They make their own decisions and tend to micromanage. These leaders use external rewards and threats of punishment to motivate.
“If you do what I want, I’ll take care of you.” “If you don’t do what I want, I’ll make trouble for you.” They are concerned about results and more concerned with ends than means. They are ‘can do’ people who have high expectations for themselves and others and know how to get things done.
Avoiders: Low assertiveness and empathy
Avoiders (Quadrant 2 leaders) are low on both dimensions of assertiveness and empathy. They preserve the status quo, keep a low profile and stay out of trouble. They play it safe by postponing decisions and avoiding conflict. They rarely initiate change but will be loyal and carry out decisions that others (boss) have made.
Avoiders may be good technically but they provide little direction to others. They stick with proven methods and avoid risks. Employees of these people get very little reinforcement and are unlikely to have a great deal of interaction with their boss.
Accommodators: High empathy, low assertiveness
Accommodators (Quadrant 3 leaders) like to keep people happy and maintain high morale. They treat people with warmth and friendship, believing that building positive relationships is the best way to motivate people and keep productivity high. They are generally easy going and overlook mistakes.
They have a difficult time setting up structure and accountability, preferring to let people figure out for themselves how to do their jobs. These leaders are quick with praise and have a difficult time addressing problems. They tend to be sociable and may spend time chatting about topics other than work.
Collaborators: High assertiveness and empathy
Collaborators (Quadrant 4 leaders) are high on both assertiveness and empathy. They have high expectations, set goals, and expect results. They can be perceived by others as demanding and yet seek to involve other people in making decisions and solving problems rather than doing it alone. These leaders recognise their own authority and don’t let pleasing others override their opinions.
They are more optimistic about people’s capabilities and motives than dominators and so, after providing direction, allow them autonomy and self-governance. They deliberately coach and develop their people. They are willing to have difficult conversations when performance falls short or differences exist, but they do so seeking win-win outcomes rather than imposing their own will on others.
Collaborators in action
An example of a quadrant 4 leader is Mike Krzyzewski, coach of the Duke Bluedevils basketball team. Krzyzewski was an unknown when he came to coach Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, in 1980. He had been an assistant coach at West Point. But no one knew him at Duke. In his first years, he suffered some humiliating defeats and by the end of his third year, he was booed in his own gym.
On 11 March 1980, he suffered the worst defeat in school history and lost a game by a score of 109 to 66. His overall win/loss record was 38 and 47. When someone recommended that he recruit new players, he responded, “Absolutely not.”
“Losing doesn’t make you a loser unless you think you are.” He wrote the names of five players, including four freshmen, that would play on the team the next year.
Coach ‘K’ as he is affectionately known, is now one of the best in America. His record (end of 2007 season) was 803-267 (.750 average). He’s averaged 25 wins per season throughout his career. 61 of his 65 players have gone to a final four during his tenure and he’s won three NCAA titles.
During March 2005, Krzyzewski appeared in a television ad sponsored by NCAA. He made the point that he was more than a coach of basketball. His primary job was to develop his players into capable young men.
Like Coach Krzyzewski, the best type of leaders are Collaborators. They set high standards and press people to achieve outstanding results, and yet they make positive assumptions about people and believe that developing them is one of their most important leadership tasks. For some, these two critical dimensions of leadership come naturally.
However, most of us need to remember that both dimensions are important. As we do we’ll expand our reach, influencing more and more people to achieve the best results of which they are capable.
Leadership: What Is Your Why? (Read Purpose)
Stop the violence that you inflict upon yourself with that type of nonsensical chatter and replace it with loving words. Most importantly…… (Wait for the drumroll) …….. Yes you guessed it …………FIND YOUR WHY!!
“We know what we are, but know not what we may become” – William Shakespeare
What moves you?
What moves you? To me it’s Connor McGregor straining his potential in every training session and then some more. When everyone tires and wants to give up during training with him, he asks everyone, “How badly do you want it?”, and then providing the example, trains even harder.
Rumi’s’ poetry reaches the depth of my soul and reveals my own scars to me. Rag ‘n Bone Mans’ song “Skin” stirs within the depths of my heart and beckons me to a deep sense of longing. Above all what moves me is the transformation from disbelief to belief. From hate to love and from lack of self-confidence to being on fire. That look in someone’s’ eyes when they truly and unconditionally love you shakes the very ground around me.
That is my purpose, my why to facilitate transformations and to coach and teach whether it is by voice or ink. What is yours? And how badly do you want it? Are you prepared to do what others will not to be a success as an entrepreneur? Are you willing to fail several times and tirelessly apply the learnings from it?
Find your why. If you cannot find a coach to help you find your why, but find your why. Not finding your why means a life of doing things that you have no real passion for, doing things that is not authentically you. That saddens me and hopefully you too, because there is nothing that ensures your long term failure more as an entrepreneur than doing things that you have no passion for, purely to survive.
Are you happy?
Most of all: Are you happy, truly happy?
If not that is your queue for a transformation. Money without happiness is trivial, business success without a full heart is empty. Can you have both business success and happiness? Yes, a yes that echoes throughout eternity, which is if you have made money as a by-product of living your “why”.
William Badenhorst, (MD of Global Strengths) a coach to the coaches says, “Let your test be your testimony, and let your mess be your message.” I want to add to that and say, AND FIND YOUR WHY. Socrates wisely exclaimed: “Know thyself”. How can you know yourself if you haven’t found what truly moves you, what you are truly passionate about?
When you have found you’re why you are willing to work harder than anyone else. And when you have worked really, really hard at something it is very much harder to give up on it as opposed to something you have made half-hearted attempts at.
Both attaining entrepreneurial success and happiness is indeed reaching dizzying heights and therefore very challenging. Indeed therefore everything worth attaining is challenging. Most people find at least some comfort in the status quo even when the status quo does not paint a very appealing picture. It is challenging to leave the known of the status quo for the unknown of your true purpose.
Are you brave enough to transform? Have you suffered enough? Or do you want to linger a little bit longer in the ease of your comfort zone where, unfortunately, no growth is possible?
True Leaders and Entrepreneurs become comfortable with the discomfort of growth. Is this a tough ask? Yes, the ones telling you it is easy are in general, delusional. I will always advocate being mentored or coached purely because it is extremely hard to be totally objective about yourself, by yourself.
Self-love (tempered by humility) and Self-confidence (not arrogance) is a requirement to live an exemplary life of purpose as a leader which others would love to aspire to. As Ralph Waldo Emmerson said:
“If I have lost confidence in myself, I have the universe against me.”
Find and have faith in your purpose and back yourself because if you will not, whom will? Love yourself by speaking to yourself with love. Honestly answer the following question: Would you speak to others openly as you would speak to yourself? Why are we in general violent to ourselves saying things like: “ I am worthless”, I am not good enough”, “I am not as good as….”? Stop the violence that you inflict upon yourself with that type of nonsensical chatter and replace it with loving words. Most importantly…… (Wait for the drumroll) …….. Yes you guessed it …………FIND YOUR WHY!!
3 Tips For Succeeding After You Fail
Failure is pretty much inevitable. What comes afterward is a choice.
If you’re an entrepreneur, you will fail. It might not be a complete meltdown, but you will experience a failure of some aspect of your venture at some point.
My first business failure occurred during my mid-20s. I tried to launch a product I invented, which was a durable, pocket-size strap that carried different kinds of recreational sports gear.
After determining the market need and securing piece-work manufacturing, as well as retail packaging complete with trademarked logo, I had several thousand units in hand.
Distribution was, ultimately, the one trick I couldn’t turn and ended in failure. I tried everything I could think of. I engaged several independent and sporting goods retail chains that weren’t interested in the hassle of adding a single-product vendor to their ops management systems.
I offered to give hundreds of units away to dozens of specialty ski, skateboard and inline skating shops on consignment to “seed the market” but was rejected. They all said my product undercut higher-margin competing products.
I tried to contract with different retail brokers to add my product to their sell-in portfolios, but was rejected three times due to the low-price point for my product and limited margin potential.
The greatest success I had was when I broke even for a catalog ad I purchased in a Sharper Image-type printed publication.
Mind you, this was all pre-Google, Amazon, PayPal or eBay when ecommerce was still finding its way on the Interwebs. However, my lack of offline success drove me to have a developer build my own ecommerce website (at great expense at the time) with an incredibly clunky, pricey payment system managed by Visa.
Sad to say, I shuttered the website after six months due to lack of sales and lack of traffic caused by the overall lack of consumer confidence in the whole “internet spending thing” at the time. During the three-year span of this odyssey from my initial concept to collapse, I had spent countless hours and in excess of $40,000 trying to convert my vision into a viable venture.
As a 20-something kid, I felt like a complete failure. I was afraid to ever try again, but eventually I did – several times – and had success. Fast forward 20 years and here’s what I would share with the failed entrepreneur I was back then.
Failure is painful but not fatal
Failure is not final, fatal nor forever. I had a great mentor who completely re-framed my thinking regarding failure when he told me:
“If you’re not failing, you’re not trying hard enough.”
That phrase has been a touchstone through tough times during my subsequent entrepreneurial endeavours.
Back then I thought I had to exhaust all my distribution options, which took a significant amount of time and resources, because I didn’t want to look back in 20 years and say “what if?”
In retrospect, I’m glad I did it then but there are signs I should have seen sooner. For instance, the first retail broker who rejected my product was very clear that my effort to keep the retail price under $10 for the consumer did not make it worth his while to sell it.
I should have bundled it with another product or enhanced it in some way to boost it to a higher price point, but I naively thought he was just being porky before two other potential brokers I engaged had schooled me on the economics of their services.
Looking back now, I could have compressed my failure cycle by at least 50 percent if I had been more teachable then.
Find insights from failure
At the time, $40K was all the money in the world and (thanks to scholarships I had earned) was eight times more than my total college student loans. But, I learned a lot about intellectual property, financing, materials sourcing, vendor research and selection, production timelines, operations management, sales and marketing as well as ecommerce. I came to view that lost $40K as a masterclass in real-world business. Most importantly, I learned what I didn’t know and that propelled me to pursue my M.B.A.. degree, which my then-employer paid for.
In hindsight, I perceive this greatest failure has been my greatest success because I earned it and learned from it. No one is immune to failing, but we must understand that it is not an ending but rather a beginning – if we choose so.
This article was originally posted here on Entrepreneur.com.
4 Tips To Become A Team Whisperer (And Improve Your Employee Engagement)
Engaged employees are motivated, innovative and willing to take on more responsibility.
Your team needs to be nurtured on an ongoing basis if you want to attract and retain the best employees. You can hire people, you can fire people, and you can tell them what to do. But you can’t make them like what they do. Some business leaders are content with having an unhappy team; as long as they do what they are paid to do then the state of their mental health is seen as superfluous.
This line of thinking is not only wrong, but it is entirely counterproductive to the continued survival of a business. Gallup has run some excellent pieces that demonstrate the difference between engaged and disengaged employees. In particular, they list several additional things that engaged employees bring to the table: Motivation, innovation, and a willingness to take on more responsibility within the company. So how can you keep your team engaged?
That level of motivation contrasts greatly with employees who don’t even want to be there. They do their jobs, but they never put in more than the bare minimum of effort. Don’t expect them to ever go beyond what their job description requires, and if there is a chance for them to duck out of work without getting fired, they’ll take it. Obviously, you don’t want to have a team that consists of these people. But without the right knowledge of how to motivate a team, you’ll find yourself unable to inspire your employees to go above and beyond what is required of them.
A great company cannot exist without great employees, and there are steps you can take to mould them into the people you want to have working for you. These tips are proven methods of getting your employees to be engaged in what they do, and anybody can learn to apply them.
1. Be a team, not a dictatorship
Every ship needs a strong captain, but that doesn’t mean that you have to spend every second reminding your employees who’s the boss. Your employees look to you for guidance, but they also want to feel as though you are in tune with everything that is going on. Some managers come off as though they are giving mandates from heaven, or worse, they rattle off long lists of orders because they don’t want to do the work themselves.
If you give the directive and then pitch in to reach the goal, you’ll show your employees that they are all part of a team, and they sink or swim together.
2. Give them a chance to shine
It’s true that some people are placidly content with being a cog in the wheel. I’m sure you know of at least one person who is sitting in a job they are relatively indifferent to just so they can collect a pension in twenty years. Those that fit that mould will gravitate towards jobs that give few chances to stand out and plenty of job security. For those who want to achieve more, they will never settle for a job pushing pencils all day.
These restless employees are always looking for a way to prove to you that they are capable of so much more than low-level work. Denying them this opportunity will either push them to greener pastures, or if they can’t/won’t quit, cause them to become disillusioned with what they do.
If you find somebody who wants to prove themselves, let them. An employee who shows the initiative and drive to better themselves is a person who will bring your business an incredible amount of value. Don’t waste this potential.
3. Don’t take them for granted — show your gratitude
This goes beyond a simple “thank you,” although those two words can have quite a bit of power in themselves. If your employees feel like their contributions are not recognised or rewarded, they will feel little incentive to go above and beyond in what they do. How you show this gratitude is as important as the action itself, because a perceived token gesture is even more insulting than a lack of a reward. Put another way, if somebody comes up with a million-dollar idea and you give them a monogrammed lanyard as a gift, don’t expect that person to stick around. Rewarding achievement is the flip side to punishing failure, and a balance between both is necessary to craft the ideal team.
As intuitive as these three traits seem, you probably know from personal experience that a lot of managers don’t quite know how to implement these strategies effectively.
4. Share the bigger picture with them
A really important element of keeping your team engaged is to share the bigger picture with them. This involves amongst others:
- Constantly communicate the Vision and Mission of your business to your team. If your team can buy into why the business was started, where it is headed and why you exist as a business, they will be able to be as passionate as you are.
- Provide a monthly update on how the business is tracking against its plan and this will empower them to focus on the areas that matter most to the business at that time. This includes sharing financials with the team — here one needs to take into account any legislation that might be applicable — but the more you share, the more you show your team that they are trusted with the information as well as being able to make better decisions that affect the business.
- Keeping your team engaged, excited and energised is a pre-requisite to developing a high performing team that is able to take the business to the next level. It takes a team of dedicated people to build a successful business. Without this team, your ability to expand at the rate you had planned to will be severely hampered.
IN YOUR TOOLKIT
Become a leader that inspires greatness
“Multipliers is profound. It’s been lifechanging for me and everyone that works with me. Leadership is not about having the best answers. You need to ask the best questions, and what happens is that you are turning people into productive engines. Micro-managing stops people from thinking for themselves as they wait for answers from you. The principle is that micro-management on that level means you are paying people 100% salary for 50% productivity. The multipliers effect allows you to pay 100% salary for 200% productivity.” — Robin Olivier, co-founder and MD of Digicape, a R240-million business based in Cape Town. Go to multipliersbooks.com for additional tips, tricks and surveys.
Radical Candor means challenging employees directly and showing you care personally at the same time. It will help you and your team do the best work of your lives.
Developed by Kim Scott — who led AdSense, YouTube, and Doubleclick Online Sales and Operations at Google and then joined Apple to develop and teach a leadership seminar — Radical Candor is all about becoming a leader who is both respected and followed, without being falsely ‘nice’.
There are two great YouTube videos that will give you her tips and lessons in under 20 minutes:
- Radical Candor — The Surprising Secret to Being a Good Boss | First Round Review
- INBOUND Bold Talks: Kim Scott “Radical Candor”
And if you’re interested in really unpacking the lessons behind radical candor, read the book: Radical Candor: Be a Kickass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity.
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