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How to Write a Business Plan

There are ten basic elements that must be covered when writing a business plan. They include an overview, executive summary; general company description; the opportunity; industry and market; your strategy; the team; a marketing plan; operational plan; financial plan and an appendix.

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Introduction

All sections of the business plan are interrelated, and cannot be written in isolation. Each should be written by people who are fully aware of the contents and intricacies of the other areas of the plan so that the different sections are all integrated.

Although there is a fairly well accepted structure for a business plan, there are many ways of putting it down on paper. While most business plans will have the basic contents listed below, no two plans have identical headings, flows and appendices.

Some of the contents will have different names and be presented in a different order but almost any business plan will cover these broad areas:

  1. Table of Contents
  2. Executive Summary
  3. General Company Description
  4. The Opportunity, Industry & Market
  5. Strategy
  6. Business Model
  7. Team – Management & Organisation
  8. Marketing Plan
  9. Operational Plan
  10. Financial Plan
  11. Appendix

Executive Summary (2 pages)

The executive summary is probably the most critical part of the business plan. Many business plan readers will read the executive summary and then decide whether to proceed further or discard the plan.

The executive summary should be written last, once all the other sections are complete. It should not exceed two pages and should eloquently summarise the most important aspects of the plan.

This is a summary of the entire plan and should cover who, what, where, when, why, how and how much as follows:

  • The company (who, what, where, when)
  • The management and their strengths
  • The business objectives and why it will be successful
  • If the business needs financing, why you need it, how much you need and how you intend to repay the loan or benefit the investor

General Company Description (1 – 2 pages)

The general company description section is used to give a high level overview of the company and the business that it engages in. This introductory section of the plan section should include:

  • Name of the company, type of  legal entity, ownership, significant assets
  • Mission statement of the business
  • Company goals and objectives
  • The main features of the industry in which you will operate
  • The most important company strengths and core competencies

Avoid getting into too much detail about the business in the general company description. It is often tempting to try and cram everything about the business into this section but there are opportunities to get into the details of strategy, marketing, operations, people and finances further on in the plan.


The Opportunity, Industry & Market (2 – 3 pages)

This section of the business plan requires that you communicate some of the insight that you got into the industry, the market and the opportunity from the systematic research you conducted before writing the business plan.

a) The Opportunity

Describe the gap that exists in the market and explain what has given rise to this gap, how it was identified and how it can be filled. Answer the following questions:

  • Where is the gap in the market?
  • What has given rise to this gap?
  • How was this gap identified?
  • How will the gap be filled?

b) The Industry

Describe the forces affecting the industry in which you will operate. These forces are covered by discussing barriers to entry, suppliers,customers, substitute products and competition. Answering the following questions will enable you to cover the critical issues in discussing the industry:

What are the barriers to entry in this industry?

  • Consider whether any of the following exist for your company and others wanting to enter the industry: high capital costs, high production costs, high marketing costs, consumer acceptance and brand recognition, extensive training and skills, unique technology and patents, tariff barriers and quotas, legislation or regulation.
  • How will you overcome the barriers to entry?

How much power do the customers have?

  • Who are the customers?
  • Do they have significant power or influence over the prices they pay?
  • Do they have significant choice when buying the product or service?

How much power do the suppliers have?

  • Who are the suppliers?
  • Do they have significant power or influence over the prices they charge?
  • Is there a limited number of suppliers?

Are there substitute offerings for the product or service?

  • What is the likelihood that customers will switch to a substitute product or service? Will you have important indirect competitors? (For example,video rental stores compete with theatres, although they are different types of businesses)

Who are the competitors and how strong is the competitive rivalry?

  • What products and companies will compete with you?
  • How will your products or services compare with the competition?

What are the major changes affecting the industry?

  • Consider changes in technology, in government regulations, in the economy

c) The Market

Present your insights into the market in which you will operate. Focus on the customers for your product or service by addressing the following questions:

  • What is the total size of the market?
  • How fast is the market growing?
  • What percentage share of the market will you have? (This is important only if you think you will be a major factor in the market.)
  • What are the major trends in target market – trends in consumer preferences, demographic shifts and product development?

Strategy (1-2 pages)

You need to describe to readers how the business will compete in the chosen markets. This requires a description and explanation of the strategic choices that you have made as a business, including:

  • The focus of the business: broad mass market or a specific niche?
  • How the business will succeed in the market? How will you create a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities?
  • What is unique about the business? How is the offering different from that of competitors?
  • What is the value for the customers? Describe the value proposition for the customer?

Business Model (1 page)

A business model is the profit-making engine of the business. It is central to a business’s success. The important aspects of a business model that should be presented in a consolidated framework include: The sources of revenue

  • The major costs involved in generating the revenue
  • The profitability of the business (revenue less costs)
  • The investment required to get the business up and running (to get to scale)
  • The critical success factors and assumptions for making the profit model work

Team – Management & Organisation (2 pages)

In this section you should provide a description of the people behind the business. It should include:

  • A list the founders including their qualifications and experience
  • A description of who will manage the business on a day-to-day basis. What experience do these individuals bring to the business? What special or distinctive competencies do they offer?
  • An organisational chart if you have more than 10 employees, showing the management hierarchy and responsibility for key functions (including position descriptions for key employees)

Marketing Plan (2 – 3 pages)

The marketing plan defines all of the components of the marketing strategy. The marketing plan should draw on market research. It should disclose the important marketing decisions about:

  • The product (or service) and why it is valuable to customers
  • The focused and detailed description of the target market
  • The positioning of the product or service – how it should be perceived by customers
  • The pricing strategy with specific price points at which the product or service will be sold
  • The sales and distribution channels that will be used to get the product or service to the customer
  • The promotion strategy including public relations activities, specific promotions, advertising and intended viral marketing activities

Operational Plan (2 pages)

Explain the daily operation of the business, its location, equipment, people, processes, and surrounding environment. This section will vary depending on the nature of the business but some the more generic items that can be presented include:

  • A description of the operating cycle that describes what the organisation will do to deliver its service orcreate and sell its product
  • A description of where all the necessary skills and materials will be sourced
  • What will be outsourced, what relationships are in place and how those relationships will be managed
  • The cash receipts and cash payment cycle of the business

Financial Plan (3 – 5 pages)

The financial plan is a reasonable estimate of your company’s financial future. Include a few paragraphs on the main features in the financial plan and back this up with financial projections. Don’t include too much financial detail in the body of the business plan. If you have detailed projections and supporting calculations, place them in the appendix. The following are the most important financial documents to include in the financial plan:

  • Start-up expenses and capitalisation: a description and explanation of what it will cost to launch the business and where you expect to get this money
  • 12-month profit and loss projection (month-by-month) and a three-year profit and loss projection (quarter-by-quarter)
  • A 12-month cash-flow projection and a three-year cash-flow projection (quarter-by-quarter)
  • A projected balance sheet at start-up and at the end of years one to three
  • A break-even calculation

Appendix

The appendix includes additional documents that the reader of the business plan may want to refer to. Documents that could be included in the appendix:

  • Brochures and advertising materials
  • Industry studies
  • Blueprints and plans
  • Maps and photos of location
  • Magazine or other articles
  • Detailed lists of equipment owned or to be purchased
  • Copies of leases and contracts
  • Letters of support from future customers
  • Any other materials needed to support the assumptions in this plan
  • Market research studies
  • List of assets available as collateral for a loan
  • Detailed financial calculations and projections

All of these sections combine to create what is hopefully an exciting and viable story of a business that is to be launched or a growth path that will take an existing business to new levels of impact and success.

How-to-Write-a-Business-Plan Template

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5 Ways To Hack A Business Plan

Bullet points are your best friends, and other tips for not getting caught in the weeds of business-plan details.

Christopher Hawker

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Whether you’re building gadgets, selling software or starting a nonprofit, your starting point is a vision, which gets turned into a plan of action.

In business, your plan is the road map that will help you pinpoint the answers to some of the most important questions pertaining to your venture:

  • What are you selling?
  • How will you make money?
  • Who will buy it?
  • How will you reach those customers?

Writing a business plan may sound daunting, but it doesn’t have to be. It can be fun! Throughout my career I have launched dozens of successful products – and each one began with some level of business plan. Because I have a lot going on, I never want to invest too much time in the actual writing of these plans, preferring to spend my time instead on the actual strategy.

Related: Business Plan Examples to Get You Going

So, how do I pen my own business plans? I hack them, and so should you. Here are my five business plan hacks:

1Start with a business model canvas

I strongly recommend that you begin with a business model canvas (Steve Blank’s blog is a great resource), especially if this is your first time writing a plan. It’s a tool for designing, inventing and thinking strategically about your company – all on one page.

The exercises will help you identify the resources you’re going to need and define the customers you need to approach. It’s a cool and effective way to brainstorm all of the key considerations when starting a business.

2Keep things simple, with bullet points

Once you’ve completed your business model canvas, you’ll have a much clearer vision of what you’re going to do, how you’re going to do it, and the people you’re going to serve. You then get to turn your canvas into the plan.

Business plans are more thorough and detailed. You will need one to share with investors if you want to raise money.

There is a section for each major area of consideration: Product description, target market, sales, marketing, operations, team, etc. You’ll want to address the who and how of each component of your business.

For example:

  • Who’s handling our marketing activities?
  • What channels will we use for getting the word out?
  • What activities will be performed in each channel?

Related: Keep it Simple: How to Write a One Page Business Plan

Thorough doesn’t need to be lengthy. Too often, entrepreneurs lose the forest for the trees, and get hung up trying to draft carefully worded prose.

Start by just getting your ideas down on paper in raw form as bullet points in each area. You can worry about making them sound good and organise them into paragraphs later.

After you write your ideas down, solicit feedback from your advisors, using a bullet-point form. This is will save you time integrating suggestions before you lock in careful wording.

3Focus on differentiation where it counts

business-plan-adviceAs you write your plan, think about what will make both your company and product or service distinct from your competitors’. You’ll want to capture your unique offering, and your business plan should emphasise this.

The good news is that while your offering should be different from your competitors’, many key elements of your business plan don’t have to be. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel or try to be different in every area.

For example: When it comes to your customer acquisition strategy or your logistics platform, you can do what everyone else is doing as long as there is no competitive advantage readily available.

Related: Free Business Plan Template Download

4Don’t overdo it on cash-flow projections

It’s easy to get caught in the weeds when you’re trying to create accurate cash flow projections.

The purpose of your cash flow and profitability projections isn’t necessarily to show exactly what’s going to happen; it’s to show how, within reasonable circumstances and success, your business is positioned to make money and can afford to keep the lights on.

Your projections’ purpose is to help you test your assumptions about profitability, not predict the future. So, you need to invest time in them, but you don’t need to go crazy trying to be perfect. Make your assumptions, declare them and proceed.

5Hire a writer

There are parts of your business plan that cannot be outsourced. Only you can decide what you’re going to do and the people you wish to serve. Thankfully, writing your business plan text isn’t something you need to do yourself.

Once you’ve completed your canvas and the high-level bullet points for the major sections of your plan, consider hiring a business writer if you’re short on time or hate writing.

Such people are relatively affordable and easy to find. I recommend checking out Upwork or Freelancer. You can then go back and forth with the one you hire, to get it just right. This can save a tremendous amount of effort.

The hacks I’ve detailed above are designed to help you save time and focus on what really matters, such as identifying your customer segments and understanding how your business will make money.

Related: Free SWOT Analysis Template

Once your business does start operations, things will likely shift anyway, so be efficient in spending your time on this task. If you treat the writing as a fun brainstorm on a living document rather than a daunting exercise, your effort will be inspiring!

This article was originally posted here on Entrepreneur.com.

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Keep It Simple: How To Write A One Page Business Plan

Lengthy business plans are a thing of the past and there are sound business principles for why.

Casandra Visser

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Burn Your Business Plan

There was a time when business plans were anything from 75 to 100 pages but today 10 to 15 can be considered too long.

If you’re hungry for your piece of the business pie but don’t exactly want to spend a couple months playing hit and miss with investors and potential customers then a one page business plan could be the answer you’ve been looking for.

Being able to simplify your business concept is a useful skill to have and it was Alexander Osterwalder and Eric Reis who decided that we should stop taking the long way around when it comes to business plans and product development.

Related: 10 Reasons Not to Write a Business Plan

“Founders go wrong when they start to believe their business plan will materialise as written. I advise entrepreneurs to burn their business plan – it’s simply too dangerous to the health of your business.” Alexander Osterwalder

The New Business Model Canvas Approach

alexander-osterwalder-business-model-canvas

Osterwalder created a model consisting of nine building blocks, which once put together give you an overall picture of your strengths, weaknesses and how your business functions. It can be used in your business plan as well as assist you with strategy and innovation in the future.

It consists of the following parts:

  1. Customer Segments: Who are your mass and niche markets?
  2. Value Proposition: What are you offering and why are you different?
  3. Channels: Look at the phases your product goes through. This is everything from awareness and distribution to after-sales service.
  4. Customer Relationships: How are you building relationships with customers and is it working?
  5. Revenue Streams: Look at what you are charging and if you could be charging more. How are you receiving your payments and does it contribute enough to overall revenue?
  6. Key Resources: What resources do you require to function? These can include physical, human, financial and intellectual.
  7. Key Activities: Ask yourself what activities need to take place in order to deliver on your value proposition?
  8. Key Partnerships: Write down who your key suppliers and partners are and how they contribute to your overall goals.
  9. Cost Structure: Look at fixed and variable costs so that you can see what can be improved upon.

If you feel that you would like to start planning your business using this method then Leanstack is a helpful tool.

The Lean Start-up

Three years after the business model canvas was developed, Eric Reis introduced the learn start-up concept and again, many were hesitant to try it out. However, after it proved successful time and time again it fast became a logical way to develop products in our ever-evolving and demanding society.

“Don’t be in a rush to get big, be in a rush to have a great product.” – Eric Reis

The idea behind the lean start-up is that instead of spending months developing a product/ business concept only for customers to reject it, entrepreneurs should instead focus on experimentation, innovation and feedback. The lean start-up simplifies the early stages of entrepreneurship by eliminating long development times and the need for large amounts of funding and instead building companies and launching products a lot quicker.

“The same products, services or technologies can fail or succeed depending on the business model you choose. Exploring the possibilities is critical to finding a successful business model. Settling on first ideas risks the possibility of missing potential that can only be discovered by prototyping and testing different alternatives.” Alexander Osterwalder

The below video will give you a good idea of what the lean start-up is all about.

Related: What is The Lean Start-Up Movement?

Why Experts are Advocating a One Page Business Plan

With simpler, to-the-point methods becoming the norm, many entrepreneurs have turned to 1 page business plans in order to get their businesses off the ground faster instead of opting for a detailed and time consuming approach. In case you had any doubts, here are the advantages of a one page business plan:

  • Since your ideas are changing all of the time, it’s easy to update
  • It provides clarity to whoever is reading it as important information sticks out
  • It’s a good way to generate interest around a business concept
  • It will assist you with your pitch
  • It offers a more affordable approach to product testing and development
  • It helps get your entire team onboard with the company vision and goals
  • With the plan having very specific goals you can create a straight forward strategy around each of them
  • It eliminates the need to find an excuse not to plan and grow.

“Once you understand business models you can then start prototyping business models just like you prototype products.” Alexander Osterwalder.

Related: Simple Money-Making Ideas for Entrepreneurs

How to Prepare a Business Plan

how-to-prepare-a-business-plan

There are many different ways to structure a business plan but the most common/effective sections to include are:

  1. Vision. Your vision should get you fired up and be short and to the point. Talk about what you are building.
  2. Mission Statement. Your mission statement will describe what you do, what your product/service is and who your customers are.
  3. Objectives. Next you can jot down your business goals for the next week, month or year.
  4. Strategies. Provide some insight into how you plan to achieve your objectives.
  5. Action Plan. Explain the steps you will take to action your strategies and remember to add dates to these items to give yourself a deadline.

Business Plan Example

Download this business plan sample to see exactly how you would layout and word your own plan. 

Test-drive Your Business Plan Hypotheses

Now that you have your business plan, here are three simple ways that you can use it:

  • Use this simplified plan to pitch investors. It goes hand in hand with your elevator pitch.
  • Test drive your thinking. Get out in front of as many potential clients, partners and suppliers as possible. In presenting and discussing your offering with them you will receive immediate feedback. This kind of first-hand market research will be invaluable as an early indicator as to whether or not your business plan is on track to becoming a profitable enterprise.
  • Review your plan on a monthly basis to see if you are still on track and revise if need be. It’s also easy to change things up if you decide a certain product or process is no longer relevant to or working for your business.
  • Share the business plan with your management team so that you’re all working towards the same goals

Useful Tips

  • Find out more about the investor you are pitching to make sure that they don’t prefer more detail in a plan
  • Do enough research to validate your objectives and strategies. You need to be able to answer any questions about your idea, your market and your finances.
  • Pair your business plan with your business model canvas to give investors and your team a better idea of how the business will work
  • Use the plan to build yourself and your team a to-do list
  • Consider the lean start-up model if you are developing a new product or service offering and are unsure about whether it’s what your customers are looking for.

Related: 5 Reasons to Start Your Business Today

Feel the Need to Elaborate?

If you feel that a the business plan is not enough to get your business started then there is the option of writing a longer, more detailed business plan without drowning in countless pages.

You can download the business model canvas worksheet here and start building your own or if you want more information on this model you can watch the below video.

Click here to view the format of a full length business plan.

Click here to download a business plan template.

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How To Research And Analyse Competitors

Who are your five most significant competitors? What is their point of differentiation? Some critical questions to ask to stay ahead.

Greg Fisher

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Traditional competitor intelligence (CI) theory suggests that an investigation into a competitor business will analyse four aspects of its behaviour:

  • Goals
  • Management assumptions
  • Strategies and tactics
  • Capabilities

My experience is that to make this exercise more meaningful and valuable for small to medium size businesses, you need to be very specific about the kind of information you are looking for. Here is my checklist of the top ten things you need to find out about your competitors. The items on this list are more clearly defined and more understandable than in traditional CI theory.

These items can therefore empower you, the business owner, to know what to look for when you embark on this exercise.

Related: SWOT Analysis Template

This list is fairly extensive and most small to medium sized businesses do not have the resources to vigilantly track each of these areas explicitly for up to five competitors. You need to ask yourself which of these items is most central to competitive advantage in your industry. Select the three to five that are core, and proactively monitor those areas.

You can be more reactive when it comes to the other items – assessing them as and when you become aware of new information.

1Customer Perceptions

What do customers think of competitors relative to what they think of you?

Customers are the most important source of marketing for any business – there is nothing more powerful than word of mouth. If customers are raving about what your competitors are doing, there is good reason for you to find out why. On a recent business trip to Cape Town I stayed at a particular B&B for the first time. Over breakfast the owner and I got chatting. He asked:

  1. Did I travel to Cape Town often?
  2. Where did I usually stay?
  3. Why had I switched on this trip?
  4. What did I think of the other places I had stayed at?

It was not vindictive or intrusive, but it was a very clever gathering of competitive intelligence. I compliment him for it.

2Product Launches

What new products or services have your competitors launched or are planning to launch into the marketplace? How do these compare with your offering?

New products and services are potential sources of competitive advantage for competitor firms. To respond to new competitive advantages you need to first be aware of them and then assess how great a threat they are. To assess the danger, observe customer responses to the new product or service, take cognisance of what the media is saying and potentially try the product or service yourself. Some of the first people to buy an iPad were Amazon employees who were responsible for the Kindle.

3New Distribution Channels

distribution-channels

What new distribution channels are your competitors using to get their product or service to customers? Will these new channels open new markets? Or will they steal your customers?

Over the years, finding new distribution channels has often been a way of opening up new markets. Amazon transformed the book industry by using the Web as a distribution channel; Tupperware was successful because it found an untapped distribution channel through parties in people’s homes. Only by being aware of how competitors are utilising new distribution channels can you respond adequately.

Related: Competitor Analysis Example

4Recent Investments

What property, plant or equipment have your competitors acquired and how are they planning to use it? Will this provide them with new competitive advantages?

The acquisition of large-scale assets is often a sign of things to come. By monitoring what competitors are buying, you can pick up signals that they are expanding capacity, changing processes or potentially going to launch a new product or service.

5Promotional Efforts

How are your competitors promoting their offering? Has it changed? How are potential customers responding?

Promotional efforts are one of the easiest competitor elements to observe because they are usually in the public eye. When I worked at a large accounting firm one of the other big accounting companies started promoting their brand on TV during rugby matches. This was unheard of in the industry and created a stir in the organisation.

The marketing people responded very sensibly. Instead of looking at what sport they could sponsor, they did an extensive survey to assess the impact of the advertising; they discovered that rugby sponsorship had almost no impact on their clients’ decisions about which accountant or auditor they would hire.

It did, however, have an impact on the decisions of accounting students about which firm they would join. As a consequence, they were able to put processes in place to counter this threat. By observing the change, interrogating its effect and responding appropriately they made some very wise and effective tactical moves.

6Price Adjustments

How have your competitors adjusted their prices? How are customers responding?

Price is both an important and a tricky component of the competitive equation. It is therefore vital to always be aware when your key competitors change their price. When you observe a price change consider whether it is sustainable, ask what signal this is sending to customers and carefully interrogate what effect price has in your sector of the market.

In a commoditised market lower prices may offer some sort of competitive advantage, but most small and medium sized businesses are not competing on price; instead, they compete on customer experience and/or product differentiation. Therefore, by entering into a price war with competitors you may be going down a slippery slope, sucking the entire margin out of your business without ever really setting yourself apart.

7Acquisitions and Partnerships

Have your competitors acquired a stake in another company or entered into a partnership with another enterprise? What might come of this acquisition or partnership?

When Google acquired YouTube, it was a signal that the organisation was getting serious about online video. When a publishing company partners with a software firm, this means it’s probably getting serious about online delivery and ebooks.

Acquisitions and partnerships are a quick way to acquire skills and technologies for major strategic moves. Keep track of where and when they are happening. Many acquisitions are reported in the local business media. You may also hear about them via the industry grapevine, which can serve as a key source of information on competitor acquisitions and partnerships.

8Financial Performance

financial-performance

Are your competitors experiencing improving or declining revenue and profitability?

In the case of private companies, specific information on financial performance can be difficult to obtain. Private firms have no requirement to report their results to the public. Yet, general information on trends in revenue and profitability is often more readily available. A CEO will allude to the fact that a firm is doing well in a local media report; if a firm is laying off workers, that’s a sign that cash flow and profitability are under strain. Although you often can’t obtain specific revenue and profitability numbers, you can infer enough from public sources of data to keep adequate tabs on your competition.

9People Movements

Have your competitors recently hired or lost talented people? What roles do these people perform? What is this likely to mean for their business?

In a small and medium sized business, one person can make a huge difference. An advertising agency which hires a respected new creative director can acquire new competitive advantage in winning clients. When a law firm loses its litigation specialist, this may signal that the firm will no longer effectively compete for litigation work.

People equal advantage and, therefore, being aware of people movements is critical. These movements are also quite transparent; people can’t hide where they work and the industry grapevine is often effective at spreading the news quickly. As a vigilant business owner you just need to be conscious of when this news is of relevance to you and consider what it means for your business.

10Process Improvements

How have your competitors changed their key processes? What effect is this having on their customers’ experience and their profitability?

Process improvements can change a customer’s experience. They can result in on-time deliveries, answered telephone calls, shorter queues and more effective products. Many times process improvements will be preceded by new investments and succeeded by changing customer perceptions, but understanding the link between the investment and the change in perception can help you assess why a competitor is gaining the upper hand and how you should respond.

Related: The Cheat’s Guide to SWOT Analysis Examples

Intelligence Gathering

In the past 20 years, information has become more ubiquitous. The process of finding data is easier but also potentially more confusing. Try these effective and inexpensive ways of gathering competitive intelligence:

News Sources

With Google News (news.google.com), news stories on competitors have become very easy to track. You can simply search past news stories and sign up for alerts about news stories related to your competitors as they break. Another secret about following competitors is that some of the best news sources are often local newspapers that cover local companies – they often get rich data and report it in great detail because of the local interest element.

Websites

Nowadays almost every company has an online presence. Just by regularly checking competitors’ websites, you can track developments in the organisation. Often there are other companies reporting on your competitors – for example, many customer experiences in South Africa, good and bad, are reported on customer service site Hellopeter.com.

Finally, just by doing a Google or Bing search on your competitors, you can see which other sites refer to your competitors, reveal key alliances, networks, suppliers and customers.

Mystery Shopping

If you operate in a consumer-orientated industry, there is no harm in becoming a customer of your competitor to figure out what they are doing and how you can differentiate yourself. Shop in their store, attend their public seminars, call them for a quote or eat at their restaurant.

When I work with business owners I am often surprised by how few of them do this. It is such an easy way of getting to grips with what competitors do well and what they do badly, yet very few people take advantage of it.

Asking Customers

Earlier, I referred to a casual conversation I had with a B&B owner in Cape Town in which he subtly assessed why I had not stayed with him in the past, what I thought of the other places I had stayed at, and what he did well or badly relative to his competitors. Easy conversations with new and old customers can tell you so much about how you are perceived compared to competitors.

Checking with employees

Frontline employees often see, hear and experience things about competitors that people back in the office would never know. Are you giving your salespeople, customer service reps and account managers the chance to share, contrast and consolidate their insights about competitors?

A simple monthly meeting in which employees are encouraged to provide insights about competitors from their frontline interactions can be a gold mine of competitive intelligence.

How Do You Use This Information When You Have It?

Information about competitors should not drive your strategy. It should merely be one of the data points that you consider when setting your strategic goals. It can also affect your day-to-day tactics in implementing those goals. The best way to explain this is by example: let’s assume you have some IT skills and you want to set up an IT business.

You assess the market and see that there is no one providing quality IT services to mid-sized manufacturing businesses in a particular area. Your competitive intelligence helps you discover that there are many one-man operations serving small companies on a relationship basis, as well as a few large players looking for annual contracts that run into the millions.

The big players sometimes sell to the medium sized firms, but they offer them limited personalised attention and ongoing support.

By gathering this competitive intelligence, you discover a gap in the market for a company with a team of customer-orientated technical professionals offering personalised IT services to medium sized manufacturing businesses. You will distinguish your business on the level of service and the scope of projects that you take on. Over time, a few of the one-man operations join together to replicate what you have done. You pick this up by scanning the news, talking to customers, and gathering data from your frontline IT professionals.

This influences your strategy & tactics:

  • On a tactical level, you encourage your account managers to spend more time with customers and incentivise them to renew their contracts with existing clients.
  • On a strategic level, you decide to embark on a
  • Project to create new mini software programmes for your clients.

Because you have been close to them over the past few years you have understood their software needs and you can create programmes to fill the gaps where there are no off-the-shelf solutions to deliver what they require. By creating these programmes you can charge them more for services and retain them as clients. The recently formed new firm of consolidated one-man operations has no similar software to fill gaps for clients.

Your competitive intelligence told you that your current point of differentiation was being challenged, so you decided first to reinforce what you currently have by renewing contracts, and then to build a new point of differentiation. This is how successful companies compete – using competitive intelligence to inform the process.

You Need to Know This – Very Important Advice: A SWOT analysis is important, but it’s not enough. You should also run a Market Analysis:

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