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The Entrepreneurial Revolution – Moving from alchemy to science.

Anthony Farr

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The growing necessity for fast tracking our economic development in South Africa and the pivotal importance of entrepreneurship in achieving this has led to recent calls for an entrepreneurial revolution in this country.

This sense of proactive urgency is to be encouraged, yet such calls can be undermined when we lack a clear understanding of the tools for such a revolution.  Part of this is symptomatic of a broader entrepreneurship challenge. We see its powerful benefits, but after 40 years of intensive research we have not made significant progress in unlocking the secrets of the entrepreneurship phenomenon.

This tension is captured in a recent comment where Raymond Ackerman concluded that the entrepreneur is the modern alchemist, making something out of nothing.  This simple description captures both the power associated with entrepreneurial culture yet also reinforces the mystery surrounding its process.  And it is this notion of mystery that continues to hinder the full potential that entrepreneurial thinking and action can bring to society.

The entrepreneurial domain

It is normally seen as the domain of those particularly gifted and brilliant, outside the reach of the ordinary man.  The process itself is also not well understood, resulting in it being seen as a phenomenon rather than something that can be given more broad application. Yet if we reverse a few hundred years, this so called ‘great man’ explanation was exactly the situation where science found itself in the sixteenth century.

Before the intervention of Francis Bacon, scientific endeavour was the preserve of those special people, equipped with unique talents, who were able to divine the patterns of Nature.  Scientific progress was accidental, circumstantial and largely dependent on the breakthroughs of a select few.  In short it was a phenomenon.

Then Bacon initiated the process of codifying the actions of scientists, leading to the understanding of empirical evidence and experimentation that became the building blocks of the scientific method. In so doing he launched a scientific revolution with profound implications.

The simplest illustration of the benefits of the scientific method is that at the time of its introduction we travelled in horse carriages at a few kilometres per hour along the ground and now a mere two hundred years later we can travel at thousands of kilometres per hour into space.

The expansion of science has been so dramatic that according to Resnik, there are more scientists alive right now than have ever lived in the last two and a half thousand years of human history.   Today, the scientific method is taught indiscriminately.

Not only is it taught to potential scientists at graduate and postgraduate levels, but everyone at every level, and especially starting at a young age, is taught it as an essential mindset and skill that is carried through, and forms part of the core of all education.   The scientific method therefore gave us the tools for the scientific revolution allowing us to harness the potential of Nature.

Finding an entrepreneurial method

What if the key to unlocking an entrepreneurial revolution was to similarly see entrepreneurship not as a phenomenon but as a method? Entrepreneurship would then be released from the confines of a sub-category of economics and elevated to the level of a social force.  In Entrepreneurship as Method: Open Questions for an Entrepreneurial Future, Professor Saras D. Sarasvathy and Sankaran Ventakaram postulate exactly this – that entrepreneurship should be seen as a method comparative to the scientific method.

The impact of codifying entrepreneurship in this way has the potential to be as significant in the field of human endeavour as the scientific method was in the field of Nature.  Sarasvathy predicts that the entrepreneurial method will achieve no less than unleashing the potential of human nature.  This paradigm is still at an early stage of exploration, but already the implications are significant.

First, everyone can benefit from the reasoning and problem solving skills that emerge as part of this method.  (It would become necessary to introduce its logic as an essential part of basic education)  Secondly, it creates a powerful tool that can be more intentionally used to take on large problems at the centre of progressing humanity.

But if experimentation was the tool of the scientific method, what is the tool of the entrepreneurship method?

Sarasvathy stumbled upon a possible answer after completing a study on 27 expert entrepreneurs.  Despite the perception that we live in a commercial world dominated by prediction (a world where the aim is to use causal or rational thinking to achieve a previously identified goal), the findings of this study showed that the dominant logic of these individuals was effectual thinking – the exact opposite of causal thinking.

Focused solutions

Effectual thinking is a mode of thinking where possible new ends are imagined using a given set of means.  An illustration of the difference between causal and effectual  thinkers is seen by the examples of conquerors such as Alexander the Great  creating his empire out of the known world (causal) in comparison to explorers such as Columbus discovering the new world (effectual).

Building on the base of effectuation, the entrepreneurial method explores a method of human action that starts with what you have available, both in terms of your internal and external resources before then iteratively moving forward, taking into account evolving uncertainties and building partnerships to co-create a new future.  The implications of these tools for South Africa are particularly exciting.

Part of South Africa’s entrepreneurship struggle is due to a simple lack of belief.  In the 2011 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report, the percentage of the South African population who perceive that they have the capabilities to be entrepreneurial was just under 43%, which is nearly 10% below the average of our peer countries. If the entrepreneurial method inculcates an understanding that the process starts with our given means, however limited those means might be, it will act as a powerful catalyst to counter the current lack of belief in our abilities.

Second, a key finding in the initial studies around the entrepreneurial method is that entrepreneurial action is largely about interaction.  This is in contrast to the historical focus on the role of the individual or the team, rather than the importance of the interactions between them and the numerous stakeholders involved in the entrepreneurial journey.

While this might seem a small shift, an orientation towards negotiation and relational exchanges with a more sociological bias as a basis for value creation, plays directly to the inherent and proven strengths of South Africa’s history – a heritage that a cursory glance at the categories of our Nobel Prize winners immediately demonstrates.

Intentional revolutionary thinking

This requirement for the tools of a revolution was illustrated again in an unexpected context recently when Waleed Rashed, co-founder of the April 6th Youth Movement that led to last year’s freedom revolution in Egypt, met with a small group of Allan Gray Fellows.  Besides the inspiration of interacting with a 29 year old who already has ‘liberating his country’ on his CV, the abiding insight from his story is how intentional they were in understanding how the tools of social media, understanding the mindset of their target market and creating channels for those aspirations would ultimately ensure that the “revolution would no longer sit inside you, but be taken out and made realities.”  Whether it be in science, freedom or entrepreneurship, revolutions require tools.

A picture of large scale adoption of the entrepreneurial method fast tracking our economic progress by leveraging the power of entrepreneurship as a social force is a compelling one.  It is a picture of the entrepreneurial revolution – a revolution finally activated with the right tools.   No longer need we deal with the mystery of alchemy, instead focusing on the certainty of science, applying an understood logic and thinking process to improve the state of the country.

Anthony Farr, CEO of the Allan Gray Orbis Foundation, is motivated by an unyielding belief in the power of education and an entrepreneurial way of thinking to empower the future leaders of tomorrow in driving the country’s economic transformation. Farr believes that the economic empowerment of the next generation through entrepreneurship is more critical than ever in South Africa. Visit www.allangrayorbis.org for more information.

Business Landscape

How Schindlers Attorneys Became Involved In The Landmark Cannabis Case

Everything you accomplish accumulates and eventually comes back to assist you further along in your career. This is how a final year LLB assignment became the basis for a Constitutional Court case.

Nicole Crampton

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Schindlers Attorneys are the law firm that were involved in the landmark Constitutional Court judgement on cannabis use within a private space. Paul-Michael Keichel, Partner at Schindlers Attorneys shares how they came to be the foremost legal experts on cannabis and how they became involved in the Constitutional Court case:

How the journey began

“In 2005, my first year at Rhodes University, whilst studying for Intro to Law, it occurred to me that there were strong constitutional points that could be raised to objectively justify the decriminalisation of cannabis in South Africa,” explains Paul-Michael Keichel.

“In my final year LLB, 2009, I took Constitutional Litigation as an elective (largely motivated by the creation of a timetable clash, which meant that I’d not have to sit another semester of lectures for a module that I had failed the previous year). This provided me with the opportunity to write an assignment titled “A Critical Analysis of Prince and an Objective Justification for the Decriminalisation of Marijuana in South Africa”, in which I composed my argument (based on the right to equality in our Constitution).”

Related: 7 Top Lessons You Can Learn From The US Cannabis Market

The start of the partnership

“Fast forward to 2013 and the Dagga Couple find themselves at Schindlers (where I am a first-year associate) to register their NPC, “Fields of Green for All”. The attorney handling the registration (who I’d also bored with my argument) suggests to the Dagga Couple that they speak to me. It turns out that they already knew of me, because my assignment had (unbeknownst to me) done the rounds on the underground cannabis networks. We get chatting and I rope-in my brother, Maurice Crespi, the managing partner of Schindlers,” explains Keichel.

“We are the only firm out of many approached by the Couple who are willing to take on their trial action against 7 state departments and Doctors for Life to push for a declaration of constitutional invalidity of the laws prohibiting cannabis use/possession/dealing in South Africa. We decide to run the challenge for them pro bono.”

The Cape ruling that started it all

“Prince and Acton et al have their matter heard in the Cape, which resulted in the 2017 Judgment. We run a portion of our trial (including expert evidence from international scientists and doctors – the best in field), but it is rendered part-heard. We then heard that Prince and Acton et al’s matter will be heard by the Constitutional Court in November 2017 and we decide, with the Dagga Couple, to intervene in that matter, upon which it is confirmed that my 2009 assignment forms the on-record basis of a major chunk of Prince and Acton et al’s arguments in support of legalisation.”

“Our involvement in the Constitutional Court was such that we provided clear legal argument and authority to support and expand upon what Prince and Acton et al were trying to say to the Court. Ultimately, much of what we submitted has found its way into the judgment of the Constitutional Court.”

Related: 10 Cannabis Business Opportunities You Can Start From Home

How a final assignment became the foundation for a Constitutional Court case

“So, an idea (bolstered by wanting to create a timetable clash) resulted in an assignment, which provided certain credibility and impetus to cannabis activists. Two of these activists ended up being our clients, which, despite being handled pro bono, has brought Schindlers immeasurable positive publicity, and which, ultimately, contributed to the decriminalisation (and potential future legalisation and commercialisation) of cannabis in our country.”

“Schindlers now has a dedicated “Medicinal and Recreational Cannabis Law” department, through which we will continue to make submissions to parliament, apply for licenses on behalf of our clients, support those who have been arrested and charged.”

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Business Landscape

6 Ways To Win A Better Deal

Be proactive not reactive by working through these six critical elements of your strategy.

Andrew Bahlmann

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By far, the majority of our clients start the journey of selling their business by working on a very reactive basis. Most business owners going to market say they just want to ‘see what happens’.  But this means you are starting the process on the back foot.

This approach automatically takes the control of the business sale out of your hands and puts it into the hands of the market. Keeping control is a critical element in selling your business for maximum value.

Letting the market tell you what they think about your business and what they want from you means that straight away the acquirers set the hoops that you need to jump through.

They tell you what they want. Any engagement is on their terms.

You have not defined terms or standards to use as a yardstick for what the market is saying. So you are much more likely to find yourself boxed into a corner, forced into the role of price taker rather than price maker.

Taking the time to define your ‘go to market’ strategy is a critical factor in achieving success for yourself, what you want for your business and how the market aligns to this.

Be proactive not reactive by working through these six critical elements of your strategy:

1. Define your non-negotiables

We all have certain non-negotiables in our lives and you must think through those that you want to apply to the sale of your business.

Spend quality time working out what your personal and business non-negotiables are. Then make sure that they feature prominently in your deal strategy. Examples could be:

  • I am prepared to stay on for only 18 months after the sale conclusion.
  • My staff need to be looked after as they have been with me for 20 years and are like family.
  • I want to sell 100% of my shareholding on Day 1.
  • I am not prepared to warrant future profits.

When you start out on the selling journey, this list will probably be a lot longer. Usually, it will reduce as you travel further and further down this road but you may even add new non-negotiables once you climb into the trenches and take control of the process.

Don’t be shy about presenting your list of non-negotiables to prospective buyers. They will certainly be putting forward their own list as well.

Related: Savvy Business Sale Spells New Life

2. How ready and committed are you to sell your business?

Selling your business is one of the biggest decisions that you will take in your life. It is an emotional rollercoaster. You will face more questions than answers as you progress down this road. Nobody can ever be 100% ready but you can help yourself prepare as much as possible by asking yourself the following questions:

  • Do I know what my business is worth?
  • Is my business ready for acquirers to see?
  • Am I ready to let go of my business?
  • Can my business run without me?
  • What makes my business attractive and enticing to an acquirer?
  • Do I have the time and skills to embark on selling my business myself?

As you work through these questions, a whole host of other questions will probably occur to you. Be decisive, objective and critical in asking and answering all these questions.

3. Put a plan together

Like any other business or strategy implementation, selling your business is a project. All projects need a plan of the objectives, timing, resources and risks required to succeed.

Selling your business is by far one of the most important projects that you will ever drive and also one with the least room for error. Your planning cannot control the biggest variable of all – how the market will react to your business. But being as well prepared as possible will help you cope with this.

4.  The market wants a serious seller

The way that your business and personal brands show up in the exit process is critical. Buying or selling a business is a very time-consuming process, with both seller and acquirer committing quantities of effort, energy and resources.

The market therefore wants to deal with a committed and serious seller. Any business owner just dipping his/her toe into the water to see what happens will frustrate them and potentially damage future transactions if that toe is removed from that water.

Related: When Is The Right Time To Sell Your Business?

5. Be ready for the experts

You are brilliant at running your own business, which is why you are considering selling it for maximum value. The acquirers on the other side of the table are, of course, also experts at what they do and how they do it.

Expect them to speak a different corporate language, exude negotiation and transaction skills and have mastered the ability to control the transaction. If you do not have a strategy or blueprint to default to when the heat gets too high, you will lose your way and could be blindsided into the wrong transaction.

6. Bring it all together

Work through the various steps identified above and craft your deal strategy. Let this framework be your compass during the transaction.

Always lean on it when there are too many variables being thrown at you. Having your strategy is the first step. Sticking to it will be your biggest test when the pressure is on.

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Business Landscape

Hooked On Ethics

The business that puts ethics at the forefront of its culture is the one that will shine in a landscape littered with dishonest behaviour.

Howard Feldman

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There is significant research into how the work environment influences ethical behaviour. Study after study has shown how the ethical values upheld by management filter down to all employees, affecting behaviour and business practice. The biggest influence on a person’s ethics is their environment. In South Africa, the after effects of the recent political regime continue to shake both country and citizen. Corruption has seeped into almost every part of the government and in some of the country’s most prominent private organisations.

The old saying that the ‘fish rots from the head’ has never been truer, nor more obvious.

The ethical dilemma

The reality is that the government’s flagrant disregard for ethics saw corruption become a part of everyday life. This makes almost everyone ask themselves questions like – why should I pay X utility bill? Why should I pay my TV license? The money is being clearly used fraudulently. Sure, it is the law, but leadership has proven that ethical behaviour isn’t rewarded or recognised.

But it is. The value of building an ethical business and upholding a culture that promotes honesty and integrity cannot be understated.

Related: Developing Your Business’s Ethics Policy

Here are five reasons why…

  1. Those who skirt the edges of ethics almost always get caught.  There has been a steady shift in the country’s moral compass as leadership has taken a far stronger stance on rooting out corruption and already some of the country’s biggest names have been found guilty. KPMG, McKinsey, Bell Pottinger and SAP have all had their names tarnished by the scandals that have rocked the country.
  2. Employees are more engaged and better behaved. A weak ethical culture filters down from the top, influencing behaviour and attitudes. If employees feel that they can get away with bad behaviour that benefits them, or if they feel that their environment encourages this, then they will.
  3. A strong ethical influence will dictate how employees treat customers and one another. If your company enforces and rewards honesty and integrity, then these will be the qualities that clients will perceive. Their lack may also see you lose market share and your reputation.
  4. Like attracts like. If you create a culture that rewards employees that work all hours, deliver the goods and commit themselves then you will attract more people with these qualities. The same applies in reverse – reward bad behaviour and the results will rapidly speak for themselves.
  5. Your business reputation. Trust can’t be bought. It is hard won and easily lost. If you lose your reputation then it is very unlikely you will win it back and it will follow you for the rest of your life. The same applies to your staff. If their behaviour is questionable it could damage your company. Make sure you set the rules of what is or is not tolerated by your company culture and consider investing into ethics courses that allow your teams to stay ahead of the curve.

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