Do you manage a business? If so, it’s important that you understand the very significant changes triggered by the Companies Act 71 of 2008.
Under the Companies Act 61 of 1973 (the ‘Old Act’), every company had to register its Memorandum of Association and its Articles of Association. While the previous Act imposed various requirements on the form and content of the memorandum, it did not govern the content of the articles.
In terms of the 1973 Act, it was legal to alter the memorandum and articles independently of one another through a shareholders’ special resolution. Additionally, the memorandum and articles were binding between the members (shareholders) of the company and the company itself.
Now, however, the rules have changed quite drastically. Under the Companies Act 71 of 2008 (the “new Act”), the MOI is a legally binding document between shareholders themselves, between the company and shareholders, and between the company and third parties.
Now, existing companies that registered under the old Act must align their existing articles and memorandi with the provisions of the new Act. Furthermore, the new Act has set a window period within which this is to be done. The window period closes at the end of April 2013.
This means it’s important for companies to consult their attorneys sooner rather than later to assess the impact these changes may have on their financial year-end and to reconsider their strategies.
The legal nature of the Memorandum of Incorporation
A Memorandum of Incorporation (MOI) is defined in the new Act as an instrument: ‘that sets out rights, duties and responsibilities of shareholders, directors and others within and in relation to the company, and other matters as contemplated in section 15; and by which:
- The company was incorporated in terms of this Act, as contemplated in section 13; or
- A pre-existing company was structured and governed before the later of:
aa) the effective date; or
bb) the date it was converted to a company in terms of schedule 2’.
Accordingly, the MOI now combines the Articles of Association and Memorandum of Association in one legal document and broadens its purpose. Currently, the articles and memorandum of companies registered before the new Act was introduced will automatically form its MOI. However, these companies should ensure that their existing articles and memorandum conform to the provisions of the new Act.
Your company MOI and third parties
Under the old Act
A fundamental principle of the common law has always been that a company representative (or agent) must have the necessary authority to bind the company to a contract as the principal. This was enshrined in common law and the principles relating to the law of agency, which specifically evolved in the company law context.
Broadly speaking, a number of well-known company law doctrines or common law principles, such as the doctrine of disclosure, meant that prescribed information was continuously made public to inform interested parties about the true state of affairs within a company.
Because this information was made public, the doctrine of constructive notice assumed that everyone dealing with a company had knowledge of who had authority to bind the company. There was an assumption that anyone dealing with the company had read these documents.
Further, any acts outside the scope of the company’s business (known as ultra vires acts) were not permitted in terms of the common law either. The company’s business − or rather, the scope of its business − was defined in the company’s memorandum (sections 33 and 34 of the old Act).
This meant that third parties dealing with the company could be denied contractual rights because the contract was null and void from the start. In other words: it never came into existence.
The practical realities of conducting business meant that agents with invalid authority often entered into contracts on behalf of their company without the company itself necessarily objecting. The law was consequently adapted to match this reality.
Section 36 of the old Act altered the common law position by validating a company’s actions even if they were outside the company’s scope or entered into by directors acting without proper authority.
No dependence on this lack of capacity on behalf of the company or lack of authority on behalf of the director may have been relied on in any legal proceedings. The company rules were applicable only between the members/company and its directors.
Third parties could not rely on them. This represented a significant departure from the common law position.
Finally, the Turquand rule was imported into our law from England. This rule stated that a third party could presume that all internal company formalities specific to that company were complied with when granting an agent the necessary authority.
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Under the new Act
The common law will continue to apply − provided it does not conflict with the new Act. Disclosure is now regulated in terms of section 75 of the new Act (conflicts of interest). In addition, companies are obliged to disclose special or more restrictive provisions contained in their MOI by affixing the suffix ‘RF’ to the company name under section 19 of the new Act.
Furthermore, according to Section 19 of the new Act, a company now has ‘all of the legal powers and capacity of an individual, except to the extent that (i) a juristic person is incapable of exercising any such power, or having any such capacity; or (ii) the company’s Memorandum of Incorporation provides otherwise’.
In addition, Section 20 of the new Act has extended the rights of third parties against both the company and those purporting to represent the company because a contract cannot be declared void by the company under the common law. Accordingly, the doctrine of ultra vires seems totally redundant both in common law and as enshrined in Section 36 of the old Act.
On the other hand, the Turquand rule has not been totally removed from our law. Section 20(7) now states that a third party dealing with a company may still presume that all the internal formalities have been complied with − provided it was not within that person’s reasonable knowledge that this was not the case.
Because companies now have wider powers and greater capacity to act than before, it is of the paramount importance that third parties observe the contents of the company’s MOI and related documents, and seek advice about possible consequences when authority does not exist. In addition, third parties should also conduct a due diligence investigation.
A Look At Youth Mentorship During Global Entrepreneurship Week (GEW)
Entrepreneur: A person who sets up a business or businesses, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.
Global Entrepreneurship Week kicks off from 12 November – 16 November. Around the world, entrepreneurs are carving out their paths and are taking matters into their own hands.
Back home, Futureproof wants to instil a culture of curiosity, tenacity and risk taking in every South Africa – young or old, intrapreneur or entrepreneur.
In fact, we go as far as to teach young children from the age of 8-years-old about the art of entrepreneurship as part of our countrywide school program. Most recently, the company has seen success in the Orange Farm area and is teaching 110 Grade 3’s to master the art of entrepreneurship.
To celebrate this week, the team at Futureproof interviewed several well-known entrepreneurs and asked them the big question: ‘What do you wish someone had told you before you became an entrepreneur?’ Here’s what they had to say:
Clive Murray, the founder and CEO of World Water Exchange: “Making money is easier than keeping it. Don’t change the rules you make for yourself when times get tough.”
Marc Ashton, former MD of Moneyweb and CEO of Dynamic Body Technology:
- Don’t start a business…
- If you are feeling foolish and still wan to then do it with partners.
- If you are doing it with partners then lay out the terms of divorce upfront.
CEO and Co-Founder, Lisa Illingworth says that Futureproof has made it their life’s mission to aid children with the real-life, hands-on skills that they need to succeed as entrepreneurs.
“Text books just don’t teach the things that entrepreneurs really need to know. So much growth and economic activity can be realised out of entrepreneurial ventures, but we are all too scared to take the leap… why? Because we don’t feel supported and we would probably prefer to stay in our comfort zones”.
In fact, while entrepreneurship could literally catapult our country, an article in the Daily Maverick in 2017 described entrepreneurship in South Africa as ‘Sitting backwards on a donkey riding further away’.
Issues that entrepreneurs will come to face, even in their younger years is that of funding issues, lack of mentorship and opportunities, low skill levels, compliance and of course, poor standards of education and lack of access to education.
The current structure of the education system was initially designed in an entirely different age to achieve economic outcomes that are no longer viable due, in large, to the rapid innovation and adoption of technology.
“Gearing the country up for the forth industrial revolution is proving to be a challenge in both the public and private sectors. Are we really ready and how we use this particular week of the year to relook the problems and derive opportunities from them?” says Lisa.
Lisa provides context on the issues that entrepreneurs face. “Imagine this: you have a brilliant idea but no investment. You have no clue where to begin but you take it to the banks and a few potential investors. Without a solid plan and ‘street smarts’, the deals fall through, or you jump through hoops, give away more than half of your company and land up working tirelessly with no returns. This a reality for many who really don’t know how to launch an idea, understand its feasibility and raising the capital they need through mechanisms that won’t cannabalise the business at a later point.”
Lisa says that the country remains hopeful for President Ramaphosa to implement his vision for entrepreneurship as stated in the SONA 2018. “The President stated that ‘establishment through the CEOs Initiative of a small business fund – which currently stands at R1.5-billion – is an outstanding example of the role that the private sector can play. Government is finalising a small business and innovation fund targeted at start-ups’,” she continues.
“We need to change how and what schools are teaching for this to be realised on a large scale and providing the foundations so that these kinds of funding initiatives will have the best possible chance of growth and success”.
Make Your Travel Even More Rewarding
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Besides collecting Avios, which can be redeemed on flights, you will also collect Tier Points every time you travel, allowing you to progress through the different Tier levels within the Club, which are Blue, Bronze, Silver and Gold.
Your Tier status will open up a world of opportunities and added benefits, such as fast track check-in, free seat selection and saving your meal preference selection as part of your Executive Club profile for future flights.
When travelling within southern Africa or internationally on British Airways, Executive Club members from Silver Tier status and up will experience a valuable and enjoyable ‘moment in time’ between checking in and boarding with lounge access into all British Airways eligible lounges. Some of these features include on-site spas, wine tasting from a monthly selection of the finest South African and international wines, a Living Library, private meeting spaces and business facilities to mention but a few.
The more Tier points you earn the sooner you will reach your next Tier status in the Club, which will result in additional benefits, such as bonus Avios, priority check-in, extra luggage allowance, access to over 170 lounges worldwide and enhanced opportunities to afford the luxury of travelling in the British Airways Club (Business Class) cabin.
When travelling in Club, priority boarding is on offer giving passengers a minute or two to reflect as they settle into the comfort of the business class seats, meaning significantly more space, which can be utilised to work on your next business pitch, read a book on your digital device or stretch out and relax before touching down.
Be welcomed with pre-drinks and a hot towel as you get seated and wait for the rest of boarding to complete as the flight embarks to your chosen destination. On-board hospitality will include a variety of delicious meals, which gets your day off to the best start or ends your trip on a tasteful note. Being an Executive Club Member, your meal preferences can be stored and offered where possible.
As part of the Executive Club you will collect Avios every time you fly and you can even top up your Avios with ease and make use of a collective balance by pooling Avios together within a household account, to reach your dream destination sooner. By calculating earnable Avios and Tier points with the simple calculator available on ba.com, an estimation can be done before booking your next flight.
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For more information and to become an Executive Club Member visit ba.com
How Schindlers Attorneys Became Involved In The Landmark Cannabis Case
Everything you accomplish accumulates and eventually comes back to assist you further along in your career. This is how a final year LLB assignment became the basis for a Constitutional Court case.
Schindlers Attorneys are the law firm that were involved in the landmark Constitutional Court judgement on cannabis use within a private space. Paul-Michael Keichel, Partner at Schindlers Attorneys shares how they came to be the foremost legal experts on cannabis and how they became involved in the Constitutional Court case:
How the journey began
“In 2005, my first year at Rhodes University, whilst studying for Intro to Law, it occurred to me that there were strong constitutional points that could be raised to objectively justify the decriminalisation of cannabis in South Africa,” explains Paul-Michael Keichel.
“In my final year LLB, 2009, I took Constitutional Litigation as an elective (largely motivated by the creation of a timetable clash, which meant that I’d not have to sit another semester of lectures for a module that I had failed the previous year). This provided me with the opportunity to write an assignment titled “A Critical Analysis of Prince and an Objective Justification for the Decriminalisation of Marijuana in South Africa”, in which I composed my argument (based on the right to equality in our Constitution).”
The start of the partnership
“Fast forward to 2013 and the Dagga Couple find themselves at Schindlers (where I am a first-year associate) to register their NPC, “Fields of Green for All”. The attorney handling the registration (who I’d also bored with my argument) suggests to the Dagga Couple that they speak to me. It turns out that they already knew of me, because my assignment had (unbeknownst to me) done the rounds on the underground cannabis networks. We get chatting and I rope-in my brother, Maurice Crespi, the managing partner of Schindlers,” explains Keichel.
“We are the only firm out of many approached by the Couple who are willing to take on their trial action against 7 state departments and Doctors for Life to push for a declaration of constitutional invalidity of the laws prohibiting cannabis use/possession/dealing in South Africa. We decide to run the challenge for them pro bono.”
The Cape ruling that started it all
“Prince and Acton et al have their matter heard in the Cape, which resulted in the 2017 Judgment. We run a portion of our trial (including expert evidence from international scientists and doctors – the best in field), but it is rendered part-heard. We then heard that Prince and Acton et al’s matter will be heard by the Constitutional Court in November 2017 and we decide, with the Dagga Couple, to intervene in that matter, upon which it is confirmed that my 2009 assignment forms the on-record basis of a major chunk of Prince and Acton et al’s arguments in support of legalisation.”
“Our involvement in the Constitutional Court was such that we provided clear legal argument and authority to support and expand upon what Prince and Acton et al were trying to say to the Court. Ultimately, much of what we submitted has found its way into the judgment of the Constitutional Court.”
How a final assignment became the foundation for a Constitutional Court case
“So, an idea (bolstered by wanting to create a timetable clash) resulted in an assignment, which provided certain credibility and impetus to cannabis activists. Two of these activists ended up being our clients, which, despite being handled pro bono, has brought Schindlers immeasurable positive publicity, and which, ultimately, contributed to the decriminalisation (and potential future legalisation and commercialisation) of cannabis in our country.”
“Schindlers now has a dedicated “Medicinal and Recreational Cannabis Law” department, through which we will continue to make submissions to parliament, apply for licenses on behalf of our clients, support those who have been arrested and charged.”
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