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Stop Whining and Start Thinking

In his latest book, star of the BBC’s The Apprentice, Alan Sugar offers business owners a no-holds barred reality check. Here’s his take on approaching banks for money.

Entrepreneur

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Moaning about the banks winds me up. Get real! Banks are businesses, just like yours. They are there to make money from their customers and, just like you, the more customers they have, the more they will make for their shareholders. They are not a charity, and they do not have to lend money to any Tom, Dick and Harry.

They are not cheap; they’ll charge you to breathe, with arrangement fees and other costs. They should only be used to your advantage. Consider the cost of money as if it is another expense you have to bear, no different to any other costs you have. There has to be a reason why you need the money.

So ask yourself why you’re going to the bank for money. What do you need it for? I spoke to a person a while ago who ran a dry-cleaning shop. He had obviously bought all his equipment a while back. His day-to-day consumables are just the chemicals he needs to clean the clothes.

That, plus his utility bills, rent and salaries are his expenses. He has a cash business, and yet he was moaning about the bank not lending to him. When I asked why he needed the money, he said he was in debt.

‘Why are you in debt?’ I asked. ‘You are not a shop that has to buy stock. Are you opening other branches? Do you need the money to buy new plant and equipment?’ No, it was simple – he was running at an accumulative loss. It was so basic – his takings were less than his outgoings, and had been for ages.

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Online Lending Options You Shouldn’t Be Ignoring

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So he wanted the cash to pay his salary and his staff’s salaries, as his business could not generate it. Sorry, mate, you are totally unjustified in complaining about the bank. They don’t back losers. You are insolvent – simple as that. What he needed to do was refocus and see how to start to make money and not just cover overheads.

It is incredible that the simple basics of business go out of the window with all of these modern-day so-called theories and principles. You don’t need spreadsheets and complex business plans; you need a pencil and a plain sheet of paper. Take my example of the dry cleaner.

On a sheet of paper he should write down his monthly costs of rent, utilities, staff and consumables. From this, he will get a figure and understand that, unless he takes in excess of that figure each month, he will lose money. This is a quick sanity check, a wake-up call that all small businesses should do.

Excerpted from The Way I See It by Alan Sugar, published by Pan Macmillan and available from all good book stores from R175.

Entrepreneur Magazine is South Africa's top read business publication with the highest readership per month according to AMPS. The title has won seven major publishing excellence awards since it's launch in 2006. Entrepreneur Magazine is the "how-to" handbook for growing companies. Find us on Google+ here.

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Bootstrap Financing

How To BootStrap Your Business With Funding From Your Shareholders

Fund your business: Bootstrapping with loans from shareholders.

Adrian Dommisse

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In the early stages of a business there is often little or no revenue – so where does cash come from to keep the lights on? In our previous article, we discussed raising funds by bringing on new shareholders.

Now we are discussing the opposite scenario – where you support the business with your personal funds rather than bringing on new shareholders. Ultimately, this is what start ups mean by bootstrapping: You, as the shareholder, get your business through a tough patch or an early stage growth phase with your own funds.

Three reasons to consider bootstrapping

Bootstrapping is a very powerful way to grow one’s business for a number of reasons. The first reason is that by having fewer shareholders, you will have fewer partners to share the profits or future value with.

But there are other more complex reasons to bootstrap. You keep control over your business, taking strategic decisions independently without consulting a large board of directors or shareholders.

Often, in the early stages of a business, this kind of nimbleness is essential for maximising the impact of the founder’s creative ideas. You can rapidly deploy ideas, learn from them, improve them and deploy again – ultimately, that is the beauty of a lean start up as opposed to an established company.

Related: Arbor Capital Tell You Which Funding Is Smart – And Which Is Not

Understand the risks

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So why doesn’t everyone do it? Well, aside from the obvious point that not everyone has the cash to invest, there is another more subtle point: Risk.

With a limited liability company, you only lose what you put in (see our previous article describing this here). So, if you have personal savings, a bond, etc. you won’t put those on the line unless you decisively invest those funds into the company.

Raising funds from other people spreads the risk around – if you put all your cash into the company, you take all the risk.

So, what to do if you fund the company with a shareholder loan? The critical thing is to record it! If you don’t’ record it, your accountant can’t track it, and there is a good chance that the cash will remain untraced and never repaid.

A simple one page document recording how much was loaned, and a simple liability entry into your financial statements, can mean the difference between getting that money back (with interest) or not.

Treat the funds as loan capital

Then, what about the terms on which the cash is loaned? Many founders regard this as an equity investment, in terms of which the money is “invested” into the business, hopefully repaid, but not with interest. That is wrong.

No matter the scenario, you need to ensure that the funds are treated as loan capital, with a clear understanding that a market-related interest rate applies to it.

Related: Funding And Resources For Young SA Entrepreneurs

Why? Well, aside from complex tax implications otherwise, the question is actually whether or not you are a prudent investor? The reality is that these are your funds and prudent commercial practice means that you should weigh up your options.

For example: do you pay back your debt (saving you interest payments), do you invest it in your pension (earning you returns), or do you invest it in your business. Surely if you invest it in your business, you would only do that the investment has a comparable return – otherwise it is nonsensical.

An interest free loan earns you nothing, in fact, it simply depreciates your investment by the amount of inflation on a daily basis.

Having said that, although interest will accrue on a shareholder loan, it will typically not be repayable until the company actually has the funds to pay. This also applies to the principal amount (i.e. the upfront cash amount loaned to the company).

For that reason, although shareholder loans are regarded as debt, they are treated as “junior” debt – i.e. they are repaid last, only repaid after normal (arms length) creditors have received back their cash.

Related: The Tenacious Matsi Modise Has Her Game Face On When It Comes To Funding

This is where your shareholders agreement is so useful (once again!) – one of the things which a shareholders agreement does is to lay out the general terms on which shareholders give loans, including interest rates and repayment terms.

Then, as and when loans are made in the future, you don’t need additional or lengthy loan agreements, you just need to confirm receipt, and record the loans in your financials.

Good luck bootstrapping!

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Bootstrap Financing

Ever Heard Of The SAFE Funding Agreement?

A new way to raise capital? It provides an interesting new way to raise capital for your business.

Andrew Taylor

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Everything in Silicon Valley moves to keep pace with the speed at which business and entrepreneurship evolves and adapts. As a result, the legal and transactions infrastructure is forced to match this development by using increasingly innovative transaction documents.

An example of this is the SAFE agreement. Pioneered and made popular by the famous Y Combinator, the SAFE Agreement — an acronym for Simple Agreement for Future Equity — represents the evolution of the much-favoured convertible note.

The South African entrepreneurial ecosystem, whilst a bit behind the pace of San Francisco, has a habit of adopting these trends and applying them, right here in Mzansi. The SAFE agreement is no exception.

However, a word of caution — simply adopting a US template and applying it to your company can create some undesirable consequences.

Related: Uzenzele Holdings Unpacks The How And Where Of Business Funding

To keep pace with innovative financing mechanisms, it’s important to be familiar with the salient features of a SAFE agreement.

Briefly, these are:

  • Unlike a convertible note, the SAFE is not a debt instrument and so, it wouldn’t traditionally attract interest
  • It seeks to mitigate the risk of insolvency for the Investee and does not have a maturity date
  • It’s intended to be a simple, standardised document to cut down on transaction costs, negotiation time and provide an easier way for businesses and investors to agree on a neutral document to regulate the advancement of funds.

Typically, an investor would advance funding, in exchange for a future, contingent right to acquire equity in the business, upon the happening of pre-agreed ‘trigger events’, such as:

  • Equity Financing: For example, where the Investee company raises capital in exchange for equity
  • Liquidity Event: May occur upon a change of control or an IPO
  • Dissolution Event: When the company voluntarily ceases to trade and/or is liquidated. One would have to regulate whether business rescue proceedings constitute a dissolution event in SA.

When one of these trigger events occurred, the investor would acquire the right to purchase shares in the company at a pre-agreed ‘valuation cap’ or a discounted valuation to the actual value of the company.

Related: Now You Have Funding, Use It Wisely To Grow And Scale Your Business

The valuation cap attributes a pre-agreed, but notional, value to the company that will be used in the calculation of how many shares the investor will purchase. For example:

Investor A invests R1 million into Investee Company B at a valuation cap of R10 million. At the Trigger event, the actual valuation is calculated to be R20 million. Accordingly, Investor A will purchase shares equivalent to a R1 million equity purchase in a R10 million company, despite the value of the company actually being R20 million.

This translates into relatively more shares in Company B, than if purchased at the actual valuation — a win for the investor and just reward for taking a bet on a speculative business.

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An alternative is the ‘discounted valuation’ method, which arises where the investor agrees with the investee company to discount the real value of the company at the trigger event, by a pre-agreed percentage.

In the example above, where Investor A agrees with Investee Company B to invest R1 million at ‘valuation less 20%’, he would get more preference shares than if he had invested R1 million at the actual valuation.

A further alternative is a hybrid of both the discounted valuation and the valuation cap, where the investor is able to choose either scenario, depending on which would yield the greater number of shares.

Related: Gearing Up For Funding Applications: What Does It Take For A Small Business To Be Funding-Ready?

It is worth remembering this about SAFE agreements:

  • The business is free to issue as many SAFE agreements as it pleases, unless this is specifically regulated
  • There is no uniformity on the treatment of the SAFE as a non-debt instrument and has not, to the best of my knowledge, been tested by International Financial Reporting Standards
  • The SAFE provides for the subscription of shares on a substantially similar basis to that of other shareholders, but the investor has no way of knowing those terms, unless specifically regulated in the document
  • There is no maturity date, so the investor could wait indefinitely for the trigger event to occur.

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Bootstrap Financing

6 Tips For Bootstrapping

Not all start-ups have the luxury or know-how to gain financial investment at the outset. Most often, newbie entrepreneurs will need to fund the business from their own pockets and resources — this is called bootstrapping.

Greg Tinkler

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Bootstrapping a business is a lesson in hard work and flexibility, but ultimately it can help accelerate a company’s success.

Here are my survival tips for entrepreneurs

1. Pick your business partners carefully

When you are bootstrapping, most of the work will have to be done internally; you need to have a partner who shares your vision and is able to bring a skill-set that you don’t necessarily possess.

If you are good at different things, chances are that you can get more done and keep expenses and outsourcing to a minimum.

Related: Bootstrapping Is Much More Fun Than Investors

2. Generate cash flow fast

The most successful bootstrapped companies today share this common trait: They generate cash flow almost straight from the word go.

Without cash flow you will burn any initial investment you have made in the company and you will definitely not be able to show investors any traction.

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3. Get good at accounting

If you’re not a numbers person, get one. Track what is coming into the business and what is going out. If more money is leaving than coming in, we have a problem. Look at free budget tracking apps online, such as GoodBudget and You Need A Budget.

Related: 10 Bootstrapping Tips to Help Turn Your Idea Into a Reality

4. Don’t be lazy

Don’t outsource work that you can do yourself. Yes, there may be people out there who can do certain tasks better than you can, but in a bootstrapped environment, you will have to learn to wear many different hats.

5. Don’t try to be fancy in the beginning

Posh offices, embossed business cards and fancy tech are all unnecessary items for the bootstrapped entrepreneur.

Use freeware, print your own business cards and use social media instead of expensive websites to promote your business.

6. Don’t take no for an answer

Perseverance is everything. Network, build relationships, be seen, use social media to your advantage. Bootstrapping is ultimately an investment in yourself that will yield results in the long run.

Read next: Essential Tips for Bootstrapping

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