An earn-out is a means of leaving the ultimate price that a buyer will pay for a business, in part, down to the future performance of that business. In other words, not making it only a function of your estimated Future Net Maintainable Earnings (FNME) and an industry applicable multiple. So with the rule of thumb method, we might have determined that the FNME was R10 Million, and the most appropriate multiple was, say, six — hence the value was R60 million.
In an earn-out, there are two additional factors. First, despite every assurance from the seller that future profits will evolve as shown in his FNME calculation, the buyer would prefer to derisk his purchase by asking the seller to put his money where his mouth is.
In other words, he wants some of the purchase price he is prepared to pay to be dependent on future profits earned, not just promised.
Second, despite having arrived at a reasonable estimate of his FNME, the seller might feel that this number averages out his future earnings potential rather than showing how actual profits might really accelerate in, say, years two, three or four — and which the FNME calculation will have discounted given their distance into the future.
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The agreed solution to the buyer’s reluctance for risk and the seller’s bullish assessment of his company’s future, is to structure a deal where part of the price is paid now, and the balance is based on future performance.
An Earn-Out In Practice
Imagine a company that had net profits after tax of R6 million last year, will make R9 million this year, is predicting R12 million next year, and then R16 million the year after that.
Through a weighted average process, both buyer and seller have agreed that the likely FNME for the business is R10 million — i.e. applying most weight to the current and subsequent year, while looking back in time to check the profit history, and believing some of the future promises for profits from the forecasts provided. When structuring the deal, buyer and seller agree that they can do better through an earn-out structure.
A simple earn-out might therefore be structured by the buyer as follows:
- Current net profit before tax (R9m) x multiple (6) x 50% = R27 million
- Year 2 net profit before tax (R12m) x multiple (6) x 25% = R18 million
- Year 3 net profit before tax (R16m) x multiple (6) x 25% = R24 million
- Total consideration = R69 million
Flexibility, Penalties And Incentives
You might well ask whether receiving R69 million spread over three years is in fact any better than receiving an up-front payment of R60 million. There is little to choose between them. But this is where the flexibility of the earn-out, and its complications, now come into play.
The first change that buyers might offer, or sellers demand, is a variable multiple relative to performance. The buyer can lay down a challenge to a vendor by saying that, if you really think you can get from R9 million this year to R16 million in year three, then I will incentivise you to do so by raising the multiple from six to seven.
But, by the same token, if things do not go as well as you predict, I want to cover the risk that I have overpaid in years one and two, and hence if your year three earnings are below R12 million, the multiple falls to five.
As you can see, the permutations for adjusting the earn-out through the percentage paid up-front, the relative splits of consideration between years one, two and three, the length of the earn-out, the variations in the multiple to be applied, are legion.
And, if this was not enough, there are also the regular inclusions of caps (maximum levels the buyer will pay at each stage of the earn-out regardless of profit performance) and collars (amounts below which the consideration cannot fall regardless of how badly the seller performs) to provide upside and downside protection for each.
Other nuances might include the split between cash or shares offered as consideration (if a listed buyer) — in fact the list of variations is almost endless. And this is where the principal problem with earn-outs comes in.
Related: How Saleable Is Your Business?
Buyer And Seller Behaviour
For an earn-out to work, the seller needs to be largely left to their own devices throughout the term of the earn-out to achieve the profit targets that have been set so that they can maximise their outcome. Any interference from the buyer could be construed by the vendor as detrimentally affecting the consideration that could be earned in each year.
From the buyer’s side, this kind of vendor behaviour can be equally problematic. Armed with the knowledge that each rand NOT spent on, say, R&D or marketing actually increases the earn-out, the vendor is unlikely to make an investment in the future of a company in which he will play no part. The buyer’s inclination, therefore, is to get involved where he can to moderate such behaviour.
The only way to ensure that an earn-out can work, therefore, is for the purchase and sale agreement to have a comprehensive and detailed list of rules and regulations for both buyer and seller, with remedies and adjustments if these are breached.
It should be noted that not every action by a buyer is always detrimental to the performance of the company during its earn-out, and more often than not the buyer will provide working capital, admin support and introductions to new markets to increase sales, in an effort to grow the business for the future. So some adjustments to the earn-out are actually put in place to discount the benefits that these actions unduly bring to the seller, as the buyer does not want to be penalised by paying more for the enhancements that he has brought to the business.
Choosing The Right Deal Structure
Earn-outs are complicated beasts. Far too often buyers and sellers go wading into complex formulae with rules, incentives and penalties with the naïve belief that all can be applied seamlessly throughout, say, a three year term.
To protect their position, vendors can demand ever more complicated protections (such as the staged acquisition of their shares as opposed to a pure split of consideration) in the hopeful belief that a better structure leaves them with more power until the last payment is made.
From the buyer’s side, now that they have bought their shiny new toy, more often than not the temptation to start playing with it is just too great, and they will be frustrated that they cannot bring their own resources to bear.
On the one hand they want the vendor to behave with a longer-term future in mind, and on the other they want to enhance the performance of their purchase but not allow the seller to benefit from this.
Despite all of the complications and frustrations, earn-outs remain enduringly popular, with no two structures ever looking exactly the same.
Vendors are just too tempted by the opportunity to really cash-out when their business will be ‘flying’ in two or three years’ time to worry about the inherent complexities that may frustrate such an outcome. Buyers are keen to incentivise owners to achieve these stellar profits, and will pay for them, but at the same time are desperate to cover their downside should these targets not be achieved.
Aside from their popularity I would guess that at least 50% of all earn-outs end in tears, with the preferred remedy being a buy-out at an agreed lump sum for the balance of the earn-out, and with both parties ultimately going their separate ways.
This may not be a bad outcome for either party, but does somewhat call into question the benefits for either party of entering into such an inherently unstable deal structure in the first place.
Leon Meyer GM At Westin Cape Town Shares 4 Experience-Driven Tips On How To Keep Your Team Productive
Productivity is a fundamental requirement for an organisation – it’s the seed that builds a business and contributes to higher profit margins.
Productivity is a fundamental requirement for an organisation – it’s the seed that builds a business and contributes to higher profit margins. But what’s the best way to ensure employees remain productive, and happy in their day job?
The answer is simple and highly effective and I choose to sum it up with three short phrases – respect, trust and teamwork.
In partnership with my management team, which consists of about eight staffers across various disciplines, we strive to tick these boxes.
In total we’re ultimately responsible for managing roughly 500 employees.
Five hundred employees across several departments is a mighty job. But with teamwork, good listening skills and the right attitude from the top to filter down, any business can run like a well-oiled machine.
I’d like share with you the essentials for building and maintaining a productive workforce, and these apply to all industries, not just the hospitality sector:
1. What’s your definition of a productive team and how do you achieve that?
We need to keep in mind that productivity is a result, one that CEOs and managing directors strive for with their teams. But what happens beforehand in order to achieve that result determines whether it will be achieved at all, and is equally important. I suggest the following to ensure a productive team:
Define roles and responsibilities: Direction is incredibly important; everyone needs to know exactly where they’re going and how they need to get there, so KPIs are essential.
Often when roles and responsibilities are unclear, things go pear-shaped. I am an advocate for setting clear KPIs, it’s a good way to steer us in the right direction, and in turn helps to grow the business and the individual in his/her role.
Be flexible: Rigid environments are the worst kind, allow your employees some flexibility and the opportunity to be themselves in the workplace. We spend so much of our time at work, we need to be ourselves there.
Celebrate the team: When there are achievements, celebrate them, single out individuals who are excelling and living the company values. This builds morale and is indicative of appreciation, which is fundamental when running and building a business.
2. What has and continues to be your philosophy since managing a large team?
Know your strengths and weaknesses, as well as your team’s and leverage off that. Be prepared to learn from others, no one can operate in isolation, regardless of the level on which you operate. Accept criticism and don’t bulldoze someone’s ideas, that’s how you build trust.
3. What in your view are the top characteristics the team look for in a leader?
- Be consistent – inconsistency screams bad leader
- Provide guidance – this is key, don’t turn a blind eye, give input and council
- Listen – always listen intently
- Be impartial – always be fair
- Give credit – it builds morale and shows you recognise good work
- Be patient – Rome wasn’t built in a day, and remember not everyone thinks the same as you do
4. What’s your view on an open door policy and how does it assist with managing a team and ensuring everyone remains productive?
I believe in an open door policy. It’s essential to build and develop trust. I’m the first to admit that it takes a while to build that trust, but once the team (on all levels in all departments) know your door is always open, and that they can trust you implicitly, half the battle has been won.
I host a GM’s roundtable every two months, just to establish how everyone is feeling and where everyone is at. It gives staff the opportunity to bring their challenges to the table, and I deal with them the best I can.
It’s 100 percent confidential and line managers are not allowed to attend. During this meeting we try reach common ground, and I commit to addressing and ultimately solving the problem(s).
Why Purpose Drives Profits
If you want to succeed, it’s time to start engaging where it matters.
Over the past two years, many clients have been extending brand positioning exercises into purpose-driven expressions.
When we look at it, it makes sense given the country’s demographics. With many of our fellow countrymen struggling to make ends meet, brands have stepped in to provide them with a picture of a future worth striving for.
Global customer-centricity study, Insights 2020, led by research firm Kantar Millward Brown, has attempted to understand how brands could drive customer-centric growth as well as the factors that really make a difference. The research surveyed 10 495 individuals in 60 countries, and there are some significant efforts worth investing in if brands want to engage where it matters most, in consumers’ hearts.
The research uncovered that for market-leading companies and brands, traditional value drivers such as quality, packaging, or distribution are necessary, but no longer provide a competitive advantage; most brands are capable of providing these drivers. What is important, are a few critical approaches.
1. Purpose-led brands
The study found that when companies or brands linked to a purpose, 80% of them outperformed the market. Only 32% of non-purpose led brands managed to perform better than the market.
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2. On the ground
It’s important to engage with consumers in their space and on their terms. Through the use of memorable campaigns, experiential events and activations it is critical to engage with consumers on their turf.
3. Be truthful and authentic
Consumers can smell something inauthentic a mile away, especially when it’s coming from a brand. This forces brands to strive for authenticity in everything they do, especially when it comes to marketing. Building values and principle-based attributes into your brand as a guiding tool is essential.
4. Helping consumers commit
By allowing individuals to attach themselves to a brand with a purpose, it helps consumers personally commit to a cause that they consider important. When a consumer is personally invested, the link between the brand and product or service deepens.
5. Balancing heritage and modern relevance
There is a continuous tussle in balancing the traditional market, transitional market and the new consumers brands are trying to attract. Keeping the heritage and roots of the brand true to itself, while creating relevance for the new market, is a battle marketers are still fighting.
Need To Trim The Fat To Boost Profitability? Listen To Your Clients First
Jeff Bezos believed that once you win the client over by doing this, everything else will follow – not least profitability.
Finding the balance between offering the extras that set you apart from your competitors and keeping things ‘lean and mean’ to minimise wastage and maximise return on investment is a tricky balancing act.
I’ve noticed that many businesses try to attract or retain customers by offering what they think their customers want, rather than finding out what they really need, and then delivering that. That’s an expensive mistake to make – and it’s not going to achieve the business results you need.
I’ve also observed that now is the age of the new entrepreneur – the game changers who disrupt the status quo long set by big bureaucratic competitors who think that their customers will just accept an inflationary (or slightly larger) increase every year, just because they always have.
While Amazon has been around for a while now, there’s also an important lesson to be learned from its launch goal, which was to bring the price to the client. Jeff Bezos believed that once you win the client over by doing this, everything else will follow – not least profitability.
How have I applied these lessons in my business?
Firstly, we design our hotels backwards – we focus on the needs of our clients, very aware that what hotel guests wanted years ago is not what they want now. That’s why we don’t offer thing like a turn-down service with chocolates on the pillow. Nobody eats the chocolates, and nobody uses the toiletries – so why should we include the costs of these unwanted extras (and the cost of the staff required to implement them) in the final bill to our clients?
We do, however, offer free WiFi internet connectivity, free parking in our buildings, free laundry services and either bed-and-breakfast options or self-catering rooms.
Simply put, we’ve cut the fat that nobody wants anyway, and added the value that our guests have said they expect.
Our clients have said that they expect the whole hotel to be a workstation, and not just the business centre in a dark, unwanted corner. So, we’ve put a workstation in every room, with always-on access to the internet. Our hotels are designed with beautiful work spaces that cater for nomadic entrepreneurs and double up as comfortable meeting spaces, again – gone are days of boardroom only meetings, our spaces are primed for work and play in one integrated space.
Our clients have pointed out that they’re already paying for their room – so why should they pay for parking?
Many of our clients stay with us for days or weeks at a time, and have said it would be helpful if we did their laundry. So, we do that for them – and we don’t charge them for it.
It’s true that many of our old-school competitors offer a broader range of products and services than we do, but we’ve built a successful business on adding the value that our clients need, removing the costs and extras that annoy them, and keeping costs (theirs as well as ours) under control by cutting out unnecessary frills.
It’s an approach that’s worked for The Capital Hotels and Apartments as a disruptor in the hotel and long-stay accommodation industry, and I’m confident that its principles would apply to any other industry that’s ripe for disruption.
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