Wilhelm Reich, a colleague of Sigmund Freud, laid the foundation for five classic personality types which, to this day, are well recognised in the field of psychology. Dr. Reich actually identified the body builds of these five types first, and then identified the personality types.
Here, I discuss both. The theory of, and how to therapeutically deal with, these types is beyond the scope of this article. However, by knowing about and working with these five classic personality types, you can understand yourself better and become more effective at working with others.
The names of each of the classic types have been changed to better describe each one. The body build of each type has been included since it is the base of this model, and it is what sets this model apart from other personality models.
The body build can also help with identifying our predominant type and others’. You can’t rely on the body type information alone, but when first starting to work with this model, it can make discerning the type easier.
As you become more proficient in identifying and working with these types, your ability to understand and work with others will improve significantly.
Years ago, I had a friend named Irwin who primarily exhibited the classic Spirituality Type. He seemed to be in another world, as if his mind was floating on the ceiling or in the heavenly, spiritual realms above. In fact, when I walked by him in the hallway, I would wave up to the ceiling and say, “Hi Irwin.” He would wave up to the ceiling in return.
Most of the energy in a Spirituality Type’s body is in their head, and they can seem like they’re in another world. Their body tends to be slim and somewhat emaciated, and they can look disheveled. The billionaire Paul Allen and actor Jim Carrey are good examples of this type. Relating to people and being in the world can be frightening to them.
In business, to best deal with those who primarily demonstrate the Spirituality Type, it is important to not be aggressive or invasive. That would scare them. It’s best to be more soft-spoken and meet them where their mind is. Conversations do well to remain intellectual, conceptual, and non-aggressive.
People who primarily demonstrate the Spirituality Type make great computer programmers, bookkeepers, or other occupations where they’re cloistered away at a desk with minimal client or customer contact.
This personality type is all about having heartfelt, meaningful, and loving connections with people. The tendency is for the chest to be a little collapsed and deflated, and the jaw to be a bit recessed. Woody Allen and Nicholas Cage are examples of this type. It is as if they are trying to receive nourishment in their connections with other people, seeming to pull at other people to feed them emotionally. Unfortunately, people can find that pull to be clingy and uncomfortable, and therefore push the people who do this away.
In a business environment, it’s important to be kind and understanding, but not get sucked into trying to fill these people’s emotional void with your attention and support. The Love Type tends to speak excessively and often in a sing-songy voice. It can be difficult to get them off the phone or keep them on track with the business at hand. The art lies in not alienating them by being rude, while sticking to the business at hand.
The Love Type can be good at customer service or helping coworkers with personal issues, conflicts, or complaints — anything that requires connecting with others on an emotional level.
The Sensitivity Type’s body tends to be overweight and big, and seemingly pinched off at the neck and in the pelvis. This sometimes results in a knock-kneed stature. John Candy and Oliver Hardy are good examples. They have big, loving hearts and strive to please. If you can load the wagon, they will pull it. In fact they’ll even load it for you. For example, they may volunteer to help you with your workload while struggling to keep up with theirs.
You can ask a lot of the Sensitivity Type, but it’s important not to take advantage of that by asking too much. When they are pushed too hard, taken advantage of, or offended, they don’t tend to communicate that. Instead, they tend to hold in their feelings as resentment builds. Once their limit is reached, they can lose their temper. They are very sensitive and accommodating, and can be easily humiliated.
The kindness in their heart makes them easy to connect with and work with on a daily basis, and they tend to be really nice people.
“I’m right, you’re wrong” is the war cry of the Commitment Type. They tend to not trust people or situations, and have their antennas up with respect to being betrayed, which is why they like to remain in control. Men tend to have small lower bodies and muscular upper bodies as if making the statement, “I’m the man in charge here.” Sylvester Stallone and Hulk Hogan are good examples.
We also see many of this type strutting the beaches in their Speedos. The characteristic female body type may have a pear-shaped body or a strong upper chest.
One does well to not get into conflict with this type. Even when you see they’re wrong, pointing that out is rarely fruitful. It’s better to acknowledge what truth there might be in their point and work with them to evolve the idea further. If their point ends up being refuted, it’s best that it comes out as if it’s their idea. That’s not as hard to do as it might seem because they’re always trying to keep one step ahead.
When they see where a conversation is logically going, they are eager to get to the conclusion before anyone else.
Commitment Type people make great sales people and managers because they so steadfastly remain 110% committed to a cause, and are happy to get people to conform to their opinion. They have a gift for seeing the big picture and are great at rallying and managing the troops. Because they’re afraid to be wrong, blindsided, or betrayed, they always have their attention on the big picture, which in the business environment can be a real asset.
These people can look like they’re wearing a uniform even if they’re wearing a burlap bag. Their proportions tend to be perfect. John Tesh and Nancy Pelosi are good examples. In fact, people can resent or be put off by them because they appear so perfect. The reality is they have delicate hearts that they can’t show, but can shatter like glass if they feel criticised or rejected.
They tend to be all business or have all their attention on making the surface look right. Their desks and office are always perfectly in order.
People who primarily exhibit the Perfection Type are excellent at organising the office, attending to details, quality control, researching, or creating office systems and professional-looking documents. However, they can also be so obsessed with getting every detail right that it can be hard to get them to stop when enough is enough. As a manager, it’s best to give this type tasks to accomplish and deadlines to keep them on track.
We all have the five personality types to varying degrees. When first working with this tool, it is common to pigeon hole people. However, with practice, we can see how each person’s two or three primary types play out. As we understand that, our ability to function in the workplace with others grows by leaps and bounds.
A useful exercise is to watch people walk by, or even just think about people you know, and see if you can identify their primary personality type(s). By having a basic understanding of these five personality types, you have a very powerful tool to use in the workplace and your personal life to help you relate to and work with other people effectively.
This article was originally posted here on Entrepreneur.com.
Why Uninsured Employees Are Bad For Business
Often businesses assume that their employees will take the necessary steps to insure themselves, but in reality, many people don’t. By covering your employees you’re not just insuring their financial futures if something happens, you’re covering your business too.
Entrepreneurship is not for sissies. It involves dreams and risks. Cash flow is crucial and often thin on the ground, as owners juggle the challenges of overheads and growth. An entrepreneur or SME owner cannot fall back on the financial cushioning that is characteristic of much larger corporate businesses.
That said, as an entrepreneur have you ever thought what would happen if one of your staff members were suddenly unable to provide for their families due to death or disability? Would their family be left destitute? Would you as a business owner feel obliged to contribute to cover funeral costs and offer support to the family concerned?
If so, you should be considering a group life policy as the financial and emotional strain on the business can be significant. Group cover is generally far cheaper than retail cover. In many cases, employees can even cancel their individual cover and, in so doing, save a significant amount of money.
Recognising both the need and the opportunity, our business, Simply Financial Services, recently introduced an online Group Cover product. These are our top five questions asked by business owners when considering employee benefits.
1. Why is group life cover better for my employees than their retail alternatives?
Group life insurance holds numerous benefits for individuals. First, since the employer pays the premium, persistency is typically better and dependants are more consistently protected. Second, the cost of group cover is often far lower (for equivalent cover) than the individual could get directly. Third, better cover may be provided for people with impaired health. And finally, waiting periods are often waived or shortened. We’re convinced that good value group cover is a net positive investment for a company.
2. Is group life cover affordable?
Group life cover starts at very affordable levels. Meaningful cover can be obtained from about R49 per employee per month. Also, there are ways to structure the payment of premiums in such a way that it becomes part of your employees’ total remuneration package. You may for example want to structure it so that the employee makes a contribution, which is matched by the business.
Affordability is obviously important to SME owners and entrepreneurs. Costs need to be weighed against benefits both in terms of increased loyalty and job satisfaction from employees, and the potential cost to the business if a key member of staff is disabled or dies.
3. What does group life cover typically include?
Cover varies a lot from provider to provider and ranges from very simple funeral policies to very complex death and disability cover. Cover can be a multiple of annual salary or a fixed amount of cover for both life and disability, and a fixed amount of cover for family funerals. You should look out for the following when selecting your product:
- What’s included in the cover? What benefits does it include? In our view, you should look for a product that provides good value protection products (eg. life, disability, family funeral). This caters for as wide a range of scenarios as possible. Be careful you don’t end up with a bundle of value added services (eg. free airtime) and very little life or disability cover.
- Free cover limits. Is there a guaranteed amount of cover (the ‘free cover limit’), up to which your employees are covered for death and disability from both natural and accidental causes (full cover), irrespective of employee numbers?
- Waiting period. How long would you have to wait, from when you take out the policy, before your employees get full cover, rather than just accidental-only cover?
- How does the price compare with your alternatives — both group and retail — and how are premiums likely to change over time?
4. What’s hidden in the fine print?
It’s really important to check the fine print, to ensure there are no nasty surprises when there’s a claim. Many providers have complex policy rules and documents, and SMEs only discover the details when it’s too late. A good barometer is to look at how simple and transparent the sign-up process is, and how user-friendly the policy documents are.
5. What provider should I choose?
Make sure your insurance provider has a reliable track record, and is underwritten by a recognised insurance provider. There are a lot of fly-by-night players out there and you need to ensure that the policy you are buying has the backing of established and well-recognised market players. You need to be confident that your insurer can be trusted to pay when it comes to claim time.
6. How do I go about buying and administering the policy?
Traditionally, brokers have sold group life policies and provided admin support to their clients. Since quite a lot of work is involved and commissions are limited, brokers have not typically been available to SMEs. As such, there is a long tail of SMEs who don’t have group life cover and their employees are at risk. Fortunately, there are now options available that allow SMEs to do it themselves online and for brokers to serve SMEs cost-effectively.
You need to decide whether you want the peace of mind of working through a broker or the speed, control and convenience of doing it yourself online.
In conclusion, we believe group life insurance offers much value and peace of mind for SMEs. While many South Africans have funeral cover, very few have life or disability cover. As an SME owner or manager, you can show you care by taking a policy for your employees. Not only will you probably save money relative to an equivalent retail product, you’ll be amazed at how much your employees will appreciate your care and generosity. And you’ll be able to sleep easy, knowing their families will be taken care of if they die or become disabled.
Day Zero And Your Employees – What An Entrepreneur Needs To Know
With Day Zero pushed out to 2019, entrepreneurs in the Western Cape are still left with one concerning question: “What will happen to my business should the water supply still run dry?”
Depending on their reliance on municipal water, entrepreneurs could potentially find themselves without the ability to generate revenue in the absence of water. During this time, they will still be expected to pay staff a salary, creating a potentially untenable situation for certain businesses.
It is imperative that entrepreneurs in the Western Cape region start early discussions with their employees to find possible solutions that can be implemented should Day Zero actually hit. CDH provides the following possibilities to consider:
To pay or not to pay, that is the question
The duty of the employer to pay remuneration continues as long as the employee tenders his or her services. This is also the case where an employee is prevented from working, due to an unanticipated or unpreventable act such as a natural disaster.
An employer would have to pay its employees that tender work even if it cannot provide them with any work. Fortunately for employers, labour law recognises certain measures that can be taken to minimise this burden. The two most common are short-time and the temporary suspension of payment of remuneration. It is also important to note that these two measures can only be implemented if all parties concerned have agreed to it.
Short-time is a system of work that is used for periods when there is little or no work. The system recognises that paying an employee for periods when he or she is not working places undue strain on the financial position of the employer and the employee.
Employees may either agree to short-time in a contract of employment, or an employer may enter into a collective agreement regulating short-time with a union representing the affected employees.
A temporary suspension of payment of remuneration may be implemented when there is some prospect of the work situation improving in the near future and the employer being able to provide the employee with work. This may be implemented as an alternative to a dismissal.
Where there is no agreement to these alternatives an entrepreneur will have to engage with his or her employees, explain the company’s position and attempt to secure an agreement in this regard. If an employer is unable to do so, he or she may have to consider retrenchments.
Can you retrench employees as a result of Day Zero?
This is a difficult question. An employer will have to consider whether employees’ inability to work will be for a prolonged period.
There is no way of knowing how long a drought will continue. With the unpredictable effects of global warming, the weather has become increasingly difficult to forecast. The World Wildlife Fund anticipates that if the Western Cape region receives the same rainfall pattern as last year, the drought will continue for six months.
The Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995 allows an employer to retrench employees for ‘operational requirements’. Operational requirements are defined as requirements based on economic, technological, structural or similar needs.
In order to establish that an ‘operational requirements’ dismissal is substantively fair, an employer must determine that genuine operational requirements exist. If the anticipated consequence of the drought is that a business may not be able to continue with its operations – without access to municipal water – this would constitute an operational requirement.
In conclusion, CDH advises entrepreneurs in the region whose business is heavily reliant on water to consider entering into working arrangements with their employees for the duration of the drought. This will ensure that the entrepreneur and the employee are both in agreement regarding available options should Day Zero occur. It will also help provide a sustainable alternative to retrenchments.
10 Corny But Undeniably True And Inspiring Quotes About Teamwork
As Michael Jordan said, “Talent wins games; teamwork wins championships.” He ought to know.
With two games remaining, my daughter’s soccer team is in second place. They’ve won nine games and lost only one – to the team in third place.
Although that team doesn’t not have as many star players as our side, they beat us on the admittedly widely held but elusive principle that sharing the ball leads to more goals (and better defense) than impressive dribbling or individuality.
In other words, their 11 played better as a team than the three remarkable players on my daughter’s team. Granted, the third-place team probably dropped more games than we did because playing as an effective team in consecutive games is harder to do. After all, it’s easier for a few great players to show up to every game (as we have mostly done) than a reliable team.
In any case, my daughter’s “club” will square off against the first place team this weekend. I suspect they’ll lose unless they listen to Michael Jordan: “Talent wins games; teamwork wins championships.”
The same is true in business and life in general.
If we want to “win championships” in both of those, we have to get others involved, pass more, risk failure, allow teammates to learn from their mistakes by letting them commit them and putting the needs of the group above our own selfish aspirations.
To that end, I encourage you, my daughter’s soccer team and everyone else interested in winning to consider and internalise my 10 favourite quotes on the importance of competing as a team. Some are a bit corny. All are true.
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