Even as a child, I was an entrepreneur of some sort. I was always brokering a sale. One year, our teachers organised a school trip to Durban. To subsidise the costs, they gave us apples to sell. I sold eight boxes to everybody else’s one. When you grow up poor, you learn how to “maak ‘n plan”. That’s what got me through a series of failures later on as I tried everything I could to get my own business going.
When I was in my teens, in the late 80s, South Africa was burning. Twice I wanted to write my matric exams, and on both occasions we were not able to because the political situation made it too dangerous.
I left high school in Tembisa and went to a technical school. That was frustrating because I am hopeless at maths, so I left there too and went into the music industry. I started a band and recorded an LP, but I soon realised that there was no money to be made, despite the fact that we had a lot of fun.
My frustration grew and I became a quasi political activist. In 1989, I was accepted as a student at a school for troubled youth. In 1990, I decided to study fine art at Unisa. It was a tough time. I had no money and no-one wanted to give me any. I made banners and signs part-time to get me through, but I had to give it up eventually. My interest in graphic design remained strong, even though the opportunities for a young, black man were few.
My first real business venture was Entertainment Extravaganza Promotions (EEP) in 1991 which promoted trade shows in the townships. There were five of us in the business, but as the only one who was unemployed I became the MD.
It was then that I saw a motivational speaker in action for the first time and I remember thinking, “Wow, that is something I must do one day.”
EEP began working on a massive trade show and I succeeded
in bringing in some big sponsors for the event which was to be held in Tembisa on a Saturday. The Friday before, gunmen opened fire on a minibus taxi killing 13 people. The show opened the next day, but that act of political violence destroyed it.
We had expected over 50 000 people to attend; instead it was a total failure. I remember I had promised my wife that we were going to make millions. Because I was the face of the company, I was the one who had to tell people that we had no money to pay them. My first experience of running a business had exploded in my face due to an event that could not have been foreseen.
I went back to the drawing board and started a one-man graphic design business. I printed T-shirts and even began a clothing label called Jozi Boys and made just enough money to survive. Then I made the move to Ad Art, a big graphic design company that was run by two brilliant brothers who taught me a huge amount about the importance of vision, determination and resilience in business.
They wanted a salesperson, but I wanted to work for myself, so I negotiated with them to give me an office in return for which I would pass on all the big jobs that I brought in. When I won a contract for NNTV, now SABC3, it was a massive achievement and I decided then that I wanted to buy Ad Art.
But as a result of my ambition, I lost focus on my own business and it soon went under. That was a hard lesson for me to learn – you have to have clear objectives and a carefully mapped out plan of action to succeed.
Because there were few resources available to young entrepreneurs at that time, I had to take all the hard knocks and find a way to carry on. All the while, in the back of my mind, was my ambition to own my own business.
But I had to find a job again to pay the bills so I joined a wholesale warehouse that sold everything from frying pans to children’s books. The company had been started by a black man who came to South Africa from the UK and became a millionaire in 18 months. I thought, “If this guy with a funny accent can do it, so can I.”
By then I had learnt a lot about skills, flexibility, and enthusiasm. I made another attempt at launching a graphic design business and when it did not get off the ground either, I decided to join Gilbey’s as a merchandiser. That was in 1995, and I went in right at the bottom.
Because I had so many failed ventures behind me, I had become a seasoned student of business and life in general. I was surrounded by sales reps who were quite lax, so I decided to work hard and soon I became a sales manager. It was great – I got a better salary, better clothes and a better car. But I was still hung up on being independent.
I knew that if I could do what I was doing for myself, rather than for someone else, I would be making lots of money. By the end of 1997 I had taken my education into my own hands and done a huge amount of reading. As a result, I started coaching the people I worked with.
It was something that I loved doing and had a natural flair for. Word got around and I was soon quite sought after. Then Gilbey’s was taken over by a UK company and I became the acting sales manager for the East Rand division.
A team building exercise changed my life. There was a physical obstacle that few people could overcome and I decided that if I could do it, bearing in mind all the books I had read about overcoming your fears, I would go it alone once and for all; if not, I’d stay with the company until I was pensioned off.
Fortunately, I succeeded, even winning the “hot shot” trophy. To everyone’s dismay, I resigned, handed in the keys to my car and went back to catching taxis. People could not understand my reasoning, but my goal was to get my own business going and it was a case of now or never.
After Japan was devastated in World War II, the country put in place a 50-year plan to restore the nation. A process improvement programme was put in place which became the basis of the kaizen revolution in Japan.
The philosophy focuses on small, continuous improvements in all business activities to enable the fulfilment of big objectives. It’s about always remaining dynamic and not static. It’s a principle that I applied to my life then and continue to now.
To raise some cash, I joined a panel beating shop and made them an offer: I would double their turnover in return for equity in the business. Within five months, I was a partner and I was driving a C-Class Merc. But I knew this was a transitional phase – there was no way I was going to stay in panel beating.
I took the money I had made and started a full-time teambuilding and motivational speaking company. With experience only and no qualifications, I had to find a partner. I drove to the Win Win Group and told the receptionist I wanted to see the boss. Stephen Carver came out of his office at that moment and I said to him, “I want to start a business and this is what I can do.
What I need from you is a desk.” Amazingly, he said yes. When I started there, I could not even use a computer. A lot of DIY education ensued. I immersed myself in the company’s book collection and soon I started pitching for business. My first deal was a training programme for leaders in government, involving policy formulation, implementation and review. I had no idea what I was going to do, but my reading paid off and I designed a course.
Over time I had material evidence of success and I started to travel overseas. By this stage Win Win had taken a 40% share of the business, but our values had started to become incongruent. At the same time, South Africa was witnessing the advent of black economic empowerment.
I had done some great work with Sentry Security, which was acquired in 2001 by ADT for R600 million. The security and guarding industry was hit hard by BEE legislation. ADT approached me and asked me to become a partner.
I joined forces with Salala Lesela. We created Kusela Security Solutions which we started with R80 000 and I became the MD. In less than four years we were making a profit of R4 million. We took no dividends and built the business’s capital to ensure it remained debt free.
Given my experiences, I am not a fan of borrowing money. At the moment, Kusela is about to sign a deal with ADT which will turn it into a R300 million business. In 2004 I ended the relationship with Win Win and became the sole owner of my business.
It was a painful decision, but I had to do it for the sake of my freedom and my vision. By 2005 I leveraged my reputation and launched my first book From Barefoot to Snakeskin Shoes which I self-published and sold over 8 000 copies. From 2006 to 2007 I was president of the Professional Speakers Association of Southern Africa, a position which, along with the book, helped to grow my status internationally.
Building a powerful personal brand. This has been the secret of my success and it’s what has enabled me to branch out into other ventures. The security business has done extremely well, giving me confidence to look into other sectors like aviation and property. Some are empowerment deals, but I always make it clear that I want to be hands-on in any business with which I am involved.
BEE is the worst thing that could have happened to entrepreneurship in this country. Besides the fact that I cannot imagine ever having to give away a percentage of my business to anyone else, the fact is that BEE has benefited only politicians and millionaires.
People ask me how it is possible to play an active part in every business in which I have an interest. The fact is that my role is always focused on motivation and people development. When we partnered with ADT I said to them, “You focus on operations. I will inspire our people to become the top sales team in the industry.” I met with each of the 180 staff members personally and that’s what I did.
My business has grown by over 5 000% in ten years and is debt free. We pay our suppliers immediately. I employ a core staff of eight and I have 30 associates around the country and the world who we bring in on bigger projects. In a connection economy such as ours, we have been able to set up a presence in the US, the UK, the Netherlands, Nigeria and Botswana, with Kenya and Rwanda in the pipeline.
We find like-minded organisations and create communities of practice. By playing on mutual strengths, we have been able to set up infrastructures in many different places. I’m a great believer in using other people’s skills. I don’t invest in massive clients because when they fall, the impact on your business can be devastating.
Our overheads are minimal, and each person is a cost centre so there is no negative cash flow. We are a learning business; we invest in education. Alongside the conferences and seminars, I aim to build an institute of knowledge to house a body of learning that includes DVDs and audio that can be used into the future by other South Africans.
Compassionate capitalism is something I believe in. I am a capitalist through and through, but I engage in society too through mentoring and working with organisations that help others. I always look at what it is that I can teach or offer of myself, so that when I conclude a business transaction, the benefits don’t end with me.
I want to profoundly impact and inspire boys and girls who are poor so that I can place a seed in their hearts and help them to believe that it is possible to transform your life and find fulfilment regardless of where you are born.
Business is a simple thing. You need to find your voice, the one thing you are truly eloquent at, and take action to create possibilities. Be humble enough to learn and know that you will fail many times.
Billy Selekane’s best reads:
Awaken the Giant Within, by Anthony Robbins. It covers a wide range of topics, from goal setting to neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), personal finance, and relationships.
Think and Grow Rich, by Napoleon Hill. Published in 1937, during the Great Depression at billionaire Andrew Carnegie’s bidding, the book outlines 15 “laws” intended to be applied by anybody to achieve success.
The Prophet, by Khalil Gibran. The book looks at issues of life and the human condition.
Billy Selekane’s seven principles to better your life:
- Purpose: This is what defines you as a person. It is a concept that almost always refers to actions that benefit you as an individual as well as those around you. Purpose is essentially a compass for your life.
- Vision: This is what spurs you on your journey and the manifestation of your purpose. It’s about transcending through time to a desired destination. Vision gives you a place to go to and should describe what you want to achieve based on your purpose.
- Goal setting: The realisation of greatness has to be meticulously planned and can only happen if you set goals. These are the objects of your efforts. Goals should be strategic and instrumental in the manifestation of your vision and fulfilment of your purpose.
- The dream team: This is the group of people you assemble to help you achieve your purpose, vision and goals. Individual achievements are usually the result of team effort, which is why you need to bring together people who possess a range of skills and knowledge and who buy into your vision and goals.
- The action plan: To achieve you goals requires a detailed and rigorous action plan. Bear in mind that actions may have to change according to the environment, so your plan should not be absolutely rigid. What you need to focus on is getting things done.
- Sowing a seed: Give something of value to others so that they may be better off. This enables connectivity between you and your environment. We all have within us the power to give love, encouragement, hope, motivation and inspiration.
- Building resilience: It’s easy to give up when you fail or when you believe life has been unfair. Giving up has a lot to do with what negative people say. Listen to other people’s experiences, not the unconstructive ones that will bring you down, but the positive ones that will inspire and uplift you. By creating an inability to give up, you will achieve success.
Afritorch Digital An Overnight Success That Was Years In The Making
By any standard, local start-up AfriTorch Digital has seen phenomenal growth and traction. But, while the company’s success might seem quick and effortless, there is a lot of hard work behind it.
- Players: Michel M. Katuta and Thabo Mphate
- Company: Afritorch Digital
- Established: 2017
- Visit: afritorchdigital.com
- About: Afritorch Digital assists research agencies in conducting market research through its in-depth knowledge of the African continent and its use of the latest digital technologies.
There is a saying that goes: It takes years to become an overnight success. While a company or individual might seem to enjoy sudden (and seemingly effortless) success, there is often more to the story. The results are usually public and well-publicised, but the years of hard work that came before go unnoticed.
Local start-up AfriTorch Digital is a great example of this. Since launching in May 2017, the business has seen excellent growth. “To be honest, we were very surprised by the level of success. Things progressed a lot quicker than we anticipated,” says co-founder Thabo Mphate.
“All the goals we had hoped to reach in four or sixth months, we managed to hit in the first month. It was just amazing.”
Preparing to launch
While AfriTorch Digital has certainly seen quick growth and success, it would be a mistake to assume that the same is true of the two founders. For them, the creation of AfriTorch was years in the making.
“The goal was always to start our own business,” says Thabo. “I think we’re both entrepreneurs at heart, and we saw an opportunity to create a unique kind of business that offered an innovative solution to clients, but we also realised the value of getting some experience first. Without the knowledge, experience, network and intimate understanding of the industry landscape, getting AfriTorch off the ground would have been incredibly difficult.”
Entrepreneurs tend to dislike working for other people. They want to forge their own path. However, as AfriTorch Digital’s case illustrates, spending time in the industry that you’d like to launch your business in is tremendously useful.
“Finding clients when we launched AfriTorch was relatively easy,” says company co-founder and CEO Michel Katuta. “One reason for this, I think, was that we were offering potential clients a great solution, but the other was that we had established a name for ourselves in the industry. People knew us. We had worked for respected companies, and we had done work for large clients. So, when we launched, we were able to provide a new start-up with credibility in the industry.”
The Lesson: Becoming an entrepreneur doesn’t always start with the launch of a company. Spending time in an established business, gaining experience and making contacts, can be invaluable. Very often, it’s the relationships you build during this time and the knowledge you accumulate that will help make your company a success.
Solving a problem
Everyone knows that launching a successful business means solving a burning problem, but what does that mean in practice? Aren’t all the burning problems already being addressed? And how do you attempt this without any money?
Thabo and Michel identified a small group of potential clients with a burning problem. Crucially, it was a problem that no one outside of the research field could have identified. Having spent years in the trenches, they saw a massive gap waiting to be filled.
“A decade ago, researchers were still debating whether the future of the field was in the digital space. That debate is now over. Everyone agrees that online is the way to go. What once took months now takes days or hours, and the cost of research can be reduced by a factor of five,” says Michel.
“But researchers are not technology specialists. If made available, they are eager to adopt digital tools, but they aren’t eager to develop these tools themselves. That’s not their area of expertise.”
AfriTorch Digital stepped up to provide these tools. Katuta has a background in software engineering, so he could approach research problems with the eye of a tech specialist. Very soon, research agencies were lining up to make use of AfriTorch Digital’s services.
“We work with research agencies that conduct research on behalf of their clients. We provide the digital tools needed to conduct research online, and we provide the online communities. A big reason for our success is that we understand Africa. A lot of companies want to conduct research in Africa, but traditionally, this has been very hard. There was a lack of access and a lack of infrastructure that made research very hit-and-miss. Thanks to the continent’s adoption of mobile technology, it’s now much easier. If you have the technological know-how and an understanding of the environment, you can do amazing things,” says Michel.
The Lesson: Find a niche and own it. Research agencies might not have seemed like an obvious and lucrative market, but having spent time in the industry, the AfriTorch founders were able to identify clients who would be desperate for their offering. Spending time in an industry will help you see where the opportunities lie.
Before launching a business, get to know an industry from the inside out. This will give you an unparalleled view into gaps you can service.
Jason English On Growing Prommac’s Turnover Tenfold And Being Mindful Of The ‘Oros Effect’
Rapid growth and expansion can lead to a dilution of the foundational principles that defined your company in its early days. Jason English of Prommac discusses how you can retain your company’s culture and vision while growing quickly.
- Player: Jason English
- Position: CEO
- Company: Prommac
- Associations: Young President’s Organisation (YPO)
- Turnover: R300 million (R1 billion as a group)
- Visit: prommac.com
- About: Prommac is a construction services business specialising in commissioning, plant maintenance, plant shutdowns and capital projects. Jason English purchased the majority of the company late in 2012, and currently acts as its CEO. Under his leadership, the company has grown from a small business to an international operation.
Since Jason English purchased Prommac in 2012, the company has experienced phenomenal growth. At the time he took over as owner and CEO, it was a small operation that boasted a turnover below R50 million.
Today, Prommac is part of a diversified group of companies under the CG Holdings umbrella and alone has grown it’s turnover nearly ten fold since Jason English took over. As a group, CG Holdings, of which Jason is a founder, is generating in excess of R1 billion. How has Prommac managed such phenomenal growth? According to Jason, it’s all about company culture… and about protecting your glass of Oros.
“As your business grows, it suffers from something that I call the Oros Effect. Think of your small start-up as an undiluted glass of Oros. When you’re leading a small company, it really is a product of you. You know everything about the business and you make every decision. The systems, the processes, the culture — these are all a product of your actions and beliefs. As you grow, though, things start to change. With every new person added to the mix, you dilute that glass of Oros.
“That’s not to say that your employees are doing anything wrong, or that they are actively trying to damage the business, but the culture — which was once so clear — becomes hazy. The company loses that singular vision. As the owner, you’re forced to share ‘your Oros’ with an increasing number of people, and by pouring more and more of it into other glasses, it loses the distinctive flavour it once had. By the time you’re at the head of a large international company, you can easily be left with a glass that contains more water than Oros.
“Protecting and nurturing a company’s culture isn’t easy, but it’s worth the effort. Prommac has enjoyed excellent growth, and I ascribe a lot of that success to our company culture. Whenever we’ve spent real time and money on replenishing the Oros, we’ve seen the benefits of it directly afterwards.
“There have been times when we have made the tough decision to slow growth and focus on getting the culture right. Growth is great, of course, but it’s hard to get the culture right when new people are joining the company all the time and you’re scaling aggressively. So, we’ve slowed down at times, but we’ve almost always seen immediate benefits in terms of growth afterwards. We focus heavily on training that deals with things like the systems, processes and culture of the company. We’ve also created a culture and environment that you won’t necessarily associate with engineering and heavy industries. In fact, it has more in common with a Silicon Valley company like Google than your traditional engineering firm.
“Acquisitions can be particularly tricky when it comes to culture and vision. As mentioned, CG Holdings has acquired several companies over the last few years, and when it comes to acquisition, managing the culture is far trickier than it is with normal hiring. When you hire a new employee, you can educate them in the ways and culture of the business. When you acquire an entire company, you import not only a large number of new people, but also an existing organisation with its own culture and vision. Because of this, we’ve created a centralised hub that manages all training and other company activities pertaining to culture. We don’t allow the various companies to do their own thing. That helps to manage the culture as the company grows and expands, since it ensures that everyone’s on the same page.
“Systems and processes need to make sense. One of the key reasons that drove us to create a central platform for training is the belief that systems and processes need to make sense to employees. Everyone should understand the benefits of using a system. If they don’t understand a system or process, they will revert to what they did in the past, especially when you’re talking about an acquired company. You should expect employees to make use of the proper systems and processes, but they need to be properly trained in them first. A lot of companies have great systems, but they aren’t very good at actually implementing them, and the primary reason for this is a lack of training.
“Operations — getting the work done — is seen as the priority, and training is only done if and when a bit of extra time is available. We fell into that trap a year ago. We had enjoyed a lot of growth and momentum, so we didn’t slow down. Eventually, we could see that this huge push, and the consequent lack of focus on the core values of the business, were affecting operations. So, we had to put the hammer down and refocus on systems, processes and culture. Today Prommac is back at the top of it’s game having been awarded the prestigious Service Provider of the year for 2017 by Sasol for both their Secunda and Sasolburg chemical complexes.
“If you want to know about the state of your company’s culture, go outside the business. We realised that we needed to ‘pour more Oros into the company’ by asking clients. We use customer surveys to track our own performance and to make sure that the company is in a healthy state. It’s a great way to monitor your organisation, and there are trigger questions that can be asked, which will give you immediate insight into the state of the culture.
“It’s important, of course, to ask your employees about the state of the business and its culture as well, but you should also ask your customers. Your clients will quickly pick up if something is wrong. The fact of the matter is, internal things like culture can have a dramatic effect on the level of service offered to customers. That’s why it’s so important to spend time on these internal things — they have a direct impact on every aspect of the business.
“Remember that clients understand the value of training. There is always a tension between training and operational requirements, but don’t assume that your clients will automatically be annoyed because you’re sending employees on training. Be open and honest, explain to a client that an employee who regularly services the company will be going on training. Ultimately, the client benefits if you spend time and money on an employee that they regularly deal with.
“For the most part, they will understand and respect your decision. At times, there will be push back, both from clients and from your own managers, but you need to be firm. In the long term, training is win-win for everyone involved. Also, you don’t want a client to become overly dependent on a single employee from your company. What if that employee quits? Training offers a good opportunity to swop out employees, and to ensure that you have a group of individuals who can be assigned to a specific client. We rotate our people to make sure that no single person becomes a knowledge expert on a client’s facility, so when we need to pull someone out of the system for training, it’s not the end of the world.
“Managers will often be your biggest challenge when it comes to training. Early on, we hired a lot of young people we could train from scratch. As we grew and needed more expertise, we started hiring senior employees with experience. When it came to things like systems, processes and culture, we actually had far more issues with some of the senior people.
“Someone with significant experience approaches things with preconceived notions and beliefs, so it can be more difficult to get buy-in from them. Don’t assume that training is only for entry-level employees. You need to focus on your senior people and make sure that they see the value of what you are doing. It doesn’t matter how much Oros you add to the mix if managers keep diluting it.”
When Jason English purchased Prommac late in 2012, the company had a turnover of less than R50 million. This has grown nearly ten fold in just under five years. How? By focusing on people, culture and training.
Who’s Leading Your Business Billy Selekane Asks – You Or The Monkey On Your Back?
You’re either a change-maker, or someone who is influenced by the shifting conditions around you. The truly successful know how to determine their own destinies. Here’s how they do it.
- Player: Billy Selekane
- Company: Billy Selekane and Associates
- About: Billy Selekane is an author, internationally acclaimed inspirational keynote speaker, and a personal, team and organisational effectiveness specialist.
- Visit: billyselekanespeaks.com
We live in a world of disruption. We live in a world where Airbnb’s valuation is $31 billion, but the Hilton’s market cap is $30 billion. Airbnb doesn’t own one square kilometre, and yet they’re worth more than the world’s biggest hotel chains with enormous assets. We live in a world where things have been turned upside down.
In this brave new world, you can either thrive, or fight to survive. As a leader in your organisation, the choices you make, the mental mind-space you occupy and how you engage with those around you, will determine your personal success, as well as that of your entire organisation.
“The business of business is people. You can’t just pay lip service to the idea that they are your most important asset. You need to live it. Leaders must be intelligent and honest. You can’t just push people to meet the numbers,” says Billy Selekane, personal and business mastery expert and international speaker.
The problem is that great leaders need to first find balance within, before they can successfully lead their organisations.
“Things can no longer be done the same way,” says Billy. “Success today is defined by people who are driven, are inspired by their own lives and goals, and have the power and capability to inspire others.” But before you can achieve any of this, you need to rid yourself of the monkey on your back.
Related: Billy Selekane
The monkey on your back
“If I continue doing what I’m doing, and thinking what I’m thinking, I’ll continue to have what I have,” says Billy. “That’s the definition of insanity. Are you doing things by default or design?”
Billy’s analogy is a simple one. It’s something we can all relate to, and it’s the single biggest thing stopping us from clearing our minds, focusing on the positive and achieving success. He calls it the monkey on our backs.
“Every one of us is born with an invisible monkey on their shoulder,” says Billy. “Your monkey is always with you. Sometimes they’re the one speaking, and you need to be careful of that.” What you need to be even more aware of than your own monkey though, is everyone else’s monkeys.
“Every interaction we have is an opportunity for what I call a monkey download. You have an argument with your spouse before work, and you end up getting into your car with not only your monkey, but theirs as well. Your irritation level has doubled thanks to the extra monkey. Now you get irritated with a pointsman, another driver or a taxi on your way to work. You’ve just added three monkeys.
“By the time you walk into the office, you’re bringing an entire village of monkeys with you. They’re clamouring, clattering, arguing with each other, and the noise is deafening. Not only does everyone get out of your way, but you can’t hear yourself think. And the more your mood drops, the more monkeys you download from the people around you. This is not the path to focus, achieving your goals or being happy. It’s certainly not the path to great leadership.
“Great leaders know how to keep all those monkeys out. They know how to control their moods, and regulate their own positivity. They understand that they are the architects of their own success.”
Getting out of the monkey business
To be a great leader — and personally successful and happy — you need to start by getting out of your own way, and as Billy calls it, ‘getting out of the monkey business.’ You need to not only shake your own monkey, but everyone else’s as well.
According to Billy, there are four simple areas you can begin focusing on today that will help you become the person (and leader) you want to be.
First, honesty is the foundation of everything else you should be doing. “Be clear and straight. Speak to people simply and honestly, but with respect. Connect with them, not through the head, but with the heart. Don’t play tricks.”
Next, be authentic. All great leaders are authentic, and recognised as such. Aligned with this is integrity. “This is sadly out of stock, not only in South Africa, but the world,” says Billy.
“There is nothing as disturbing as a leader without integrity, and on a personal level, you won’t achieve emotional stability if you aren’t a person of integrity.”
Finally, you need to embrace love. “Wish your employees well. Wish your family, friends and connections well. When we are given love, and trusted to perform, we take that and pay it forward. In the case of business, this means your employees are giving the same love to customers, but if everyone showed a little more love, the world would be a better place. When people feel cared for, they show up with their hearts and wallets, and they pay it forward.
“Great leaders understand this. They don’t only focus on making themselves better, but adding to everyone around them. Remember this: In every business, there are no bad employees, just bad leaders. Employees are a reflection of that.”
If you want to build a better future, business or life, you need to start with yourself.
Stop letting negative thoughts and minor irritations derail you. You are the master of your moods and thoughts, so take personal responsibility for them.
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