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Fruit & Veg City: Michael And Brian Coppin

Fruit & Veg City has grown from a single store to a household name with a huge national footprint. Brothers Brian and Michael Coppin share their growth challenges and new plans for the international market.

Juliet Pitman

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Brian and Michael Coppin of Fruit and Veg City

I meet with Fruit & Veg City founders,Brian and Michael Coppin, just a few hours before they’re set to open a newstore in Lenasia. These days, it’s a process that runs without a hitch andLenasia allows them to mark off the 98th store on their target list of 200stores by 2010. But for all their casual relaxed attitude, there can be nodenying the hard work that the Coppin brothers have put into making Fruit & Veg City what it is today.

Their story starts in 1993, when the firstFruit & Veg City opened in Cape Town; but to understand what’s made themsuch a success, one needs to go further back. The Coppin family has a longhistory in retail. Coppin
senior was a director of OK Bazaars for around 40 years and the brothersfollowed in his footsteps, working their way through the ranks to traineemanagers and then managers within the group.

But experience in an industry doesn’talways equip you to run your own business, as Brian and Michael discovered in1983. “We knew a lot about running retail stores and in ’83 we left to open twoof our own supermarkets. But we were trying to take on big retailers with whatwas essentially a small café. We were young, probably had more balls thanbrains, and the venture didn’t work,” explains Brian.

The brothers were sufficiently undeterredby this early failure to pluck up the gumption to approach a creditor who hadlost money in their previous business, and convince him to reinvest in theirlatest venture – a pre-packed fruit and vegetable business. “Somehow weconvinced him it was a great way to make his money back, and he took a share inthe business,” says Michael.

The company started out small, supplying asingle retail outlet, before building up some capital which allowed the Coppinsto open their own retail outlet. “That was the first Fruit & Veg City,which was created when we bought an existing business called The Carrot King,and converted it,” says Brian.

The business was successful from the wordgo. At the time, their vision was to have one store only that provided fruitand vegetables exclusively. “We recognised the importance of remaining focusedon one thing at that time,” says Brian, adding that they had identified a gapin the market for such a store.

Michael adds: “At the time the supermarketshad the bulk of the fruit and veg business and there were no really big playerswho were only doing fruit and veg, so that’s where we concentrated. Back then,we didn’t have bakeries, nuts, meat – anything other than fresh fruit andvegetables. That was our focus.”

But in spite of the absence of other bigplayers in the fruit and veg market, the large retail chains representedcompetition enough, and the Coppins needed a strategy to establish a footholdin the market.

Drawing on relationships they had built upwith suppliers, they sourced their stock directly from the farmers and frommunicipal markets. “We were very aggressively priced from the start, whilestill focusing on quality and range. We bought the best we could get but wesold it at the best possible price and this meant we were able to price ourgoods between 20% to 25% below the supermarket prices,” explains Brian.

Their pricing structure was made possibleby the fact that Fruit & Veg City has no rebate system and runs very lowcost distribution centres. “They’re run at about 4, 5% margins,” says Brian,“and we continually focus on cost containment.” Typically, distribution centresmake the profit, with a mark-up of around 25% but with their own centre from theirpre-packed business, the company was able to cut out the middle man.

The Coppins ran the Access Park store for18 months before going on to open three more stores in the Cape. Michaelexplains some of the challenges this growth spurt precipitated: “In those earlydays we were running everything ourselves and it took time to get the modelright. Running one store is very different to running a business with four orfive stores. It means training up managers and making sure that controls are inplace that ensure things are run according to your system.”

Brian adds: “I think the biggest challengewas controlling wastage and culling. We wanted to have big, colourful displaysof fruit and veg but if you couldn’t turn the product fast enough, you’d end uphaving to throw away.” He adds that culling and wastage typically accounted fora 5% loss of product, already below industry average.

If the company was not able to keep stockwastage levels down, its pricing would be adversely affected and it would loseits competitive edge. Taking the bull by the horns Brian and Michaelimplemented a system that other industry players believed to be practicallyimpossible. “We did stock take once a week, instead of once a month or onceevery three months,” says Brian.

Although franchising was not a route they’doriginally planned on, the company’s reputation was growing and its nextdevelopment phase steered it towards these unchartered waters. Brian explains:“Someone from Port Elizabeth approached us in 1995, wanting to open a Fruit& Veg City there. At that time we were only in Cape Town and we only hadcompany-owned stores. But we felt that the model was right and the distributioncentre was running smoothly by that time. We’d overcome the teething problems –so we went for it.”

On the back of its successful PortElizabeth franchise venture, Fruit & Veg City opened franchises in EastLondon, Durban, Bloemfontein and Pretoria. “Initially we took it slowly, onlyopening two or three a year for the first five years and then we really startedpushing it.”

Franchising brought with it a whole new setof challenges. “The biggest challenge in franchising is to get a franchisee tolisten. Any franchisor will tell you the same thing,” jokes Michael, addingthat they needed a system of controls to ensure that standards were met byfranchisees.

Unusually, Fruit & Veg franchisedstores are not treated any differently to company-owned stores. They are allvisited once a week by the regional manager, who scores store managers and franchiseeson a number of performance indicators like quality, freshness and cleanliness.“These scores are amalgamated by head office weekly and sent out, and thosestores that are at the bottom of the scale for their region will get morevisits from the regional manager until things are up to par,” explains Brian.

In spite of the challenges it posed, hefeels that going the franchising route was worthwhile. “It got us to the pointwe are now where we have 100 stores, something we wouldn’t have been able to achieveif we were financing the growth ourselves,” he says.

But while the brothers were happy tofranchise stores in the country’s smaller centres, they had other plans
for Johannesburg.

“From the start we decided that if we weregoing to open in Johannesburg, all the stores would be company-owned like theyare in Cape Town, and we’d build a second distribution centre, specifically forthe Johannesburg market,” says Michael, who moved to Gauteng for five years tosee the project properly implemented.

The first Johannesburg-based store – andtheir most ambitious venture to date – was opened at Bruma Lake in 1999. “Weinvested a great deal of money in that store and took a big risk. It was by farthe biggest store we’d ever attempted,” says Brian. But the returns were morethan pleasing. In the first four days, the store’s turnover hit the R1 millionmark.

What followed was a huge growth spurt.Today, the company has 20 corporate stores, 78 franchises, a turnover of R2, 1billion and 6 500 employees. In spite of the growth, the company structure hasremained remarkably flat.
Brian is the MD, Michael handles the roll-out of new stores and they areassisted by an operations director, a financial director, an admin team andseven regional managers. Many franchisees own more than one store and some siton the company’s board. Although its growth has meant more controls need to beput in place, Fruit & Veg City has been careful not to lose its competitiveedge in price. “We are still the biggest buyers on the municipal markets wherewe get between 40% to 60% of our goods, while our competitors get around 90% to95% of their supply direct from the farmers. The markets are still the biggestdetermining factor of price so keeping our finger on the pulse there means wecan anticipate price changes – and react to them – far more quickly than ourcompetitors,” explains Brian.

“Because all the store managers andfranchisees are at the markets every day, and integrally involved in thebuying, the entire company is able to read where the market is going as ithappens. And we don’t have to wait to put the new prices into the system andthen notify everyone of the change – our reaction times are immediate.”

Over time, Fruit & Veg City hasexpanded its product range, shifting its focus from fruit and vegetables to allthings fresh. “We have never wanted to be – and don’t believe we are now – justanother supermarket, but over time we started to evolve beyond fruit and veginto other fresh produce, things like fresh fruit juice, meat, deli, cheese andbaked products. These are known as our Fresher Food Stores and they form thecore of our business,” explains Brain.

This led to a new vision – to be a firstclass destination for all fresh produce. “But while we were experts at fruitand veg, we knew we had to do some homework on the other segments, so weconducted extensive research overseas, sourcing the best ideas and people wecould find.”

Inspired by what they saw, the brothersreturned home to open the first Fruit & Veg City Food Lovers Market inHillfox, a milestone store that boasts 3 600m2 of fresh food options. Threetimes the size of a normal store, the Food Lovers Markets opened up a whole newsegment for the company, complete with bakery, butchery, cheese, deli counter,pizza, pasta, fresh fish, sushi and chocolateries. “Some of these stores nowalso have a limited essential grocery range,” says Brian.

There are 12 Food Lovers Markets open todate, and the company draws on the expertise of specialists in each ‘fresh’department to ensure the smooth opening and roll-out of new stores.

FreshStop Stores followed, addingfree-standing counters that focus on fresh, healthy takeaways and smoothies tothe company’s mix. Situated mainly in the Western Cape at the moment, plans areafoot to roll out these stores elsewhere in the country. “It’s a great summerbrand but it has its challenges in winter, which is something we’re workingon,” says Brian.

The company’s buying power, particularly inimporting products from overseas, led directly to the formation of itsinternational import/export arm in 2005. “We’ve also become quite a bigexporter as well, to countries like Spain and Russia. And if anything affectscash flow and forces you up a learning curve, it’s exporting!” says Brian. Butthe venture is worthwhile and this year will do a R200 million turnover, withexporting making up 80% of that amount. In May this year, the company openedits first overseas store in Sydney, Australia. “We have partners there and weown 50% of the business, so we go over there once a month and the plan is toroll out more stores once this one has found its feet. It’s a very similarmarket to ours,” says Brian.

Fruit & Veg City is still rolling outten stores a year and the Coppins are adamant that there are opportunities tobe found in the current economic conditions. “We’re a value-driven business sowe expect to see more customers – not less – when times get tough. We startedduring difficult times so this is not new territory,” says Brian, concluding,“This year we’re trading 23% up on last year.”

Juliet Pitman is a features writer at Entrepreneur Magazine.

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Entrepreneur Profiles

Afritorch Digital An Overnight Success That Was Years In The Making

By any standard, local start-up AfriTorch Digital has seen phenomenal growth and traction. But, while the company’s success might seem quick and effortless, there is a lot of hard work behind it.

GG van Rooyen

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michel-m-katuta-and-thabo-mphate-of-afritorch-digital

Vital stats

  • Players: Michel M. Katuta and Thabo Mphate
  • Company: Afritorch Digital
  • Established: 2017
  • Visit: afritorchdigital.com
  • About: Afritorch Digital assists research agencies in conducting market research through its in-depth knowledge of the African continent and its use of the latest digital technologies.

There is a saying that goes: It takes years to become an overnight success. While a company or individual might seem to enjoy sudden (and seemingly effortless) success, there is often more to the story. The results are usually public and well-publicised, but the years of hard work that came before go unnoticed.

Local start-up AfriTorch Digital is a great example of this. Since launching in May 2017, the business has seen excellent growth. “To be honest, we were very surprised by the level of success. Things progressed a lot quicker than we anticipated,” says co-founder Thabo Mphate.

 “All the goals we had hoped to reach in four or sixth months, we managed to hit in the first month. It was just amazing.”

Related: Edward Moshole Founder Of Chem-Fresh Started With R68 And Turned It Into A R25 Million Business

Preparing to launch

While AfriTorch Digital has certainly seen quick growth and success, it would be a mistake to assume that the same is true of the two founders. For them, the creation of AfriTorch was years in the making.

“The goal was always to start our own business,” says Thabo. “I think we’re both entrepreneurs at heart, and we saw an opportunity to create a unique kind of business that offered an innovative solution to clients, but we also realised the value of getting some experience first. Without the knowledge, experience, network and intimate understanding of the industry landscape, getting AfriTorch off the ground would have been incredibly difficult.”

Entrepreneurs tend to dislike working for other people. They want to forge their own path. However, as AfriTorch Digital’s case illustrates, spending time in the industry that you’d like to launch your business in is tremendously useful.

“Finding clients when we launched AfriTorch was relatively easy,” says company co-founder and CEO Michel Katuta. “One reason for this, I think, was that we were offering potential clients a great solution, but the other was that we had established a name for ourselves in the industry. People knew us. We had worked for respected companies, and we had done work for large clients. So, when we launched, we were able to provide a new start-up with credibility in the industry.”

The Lesson: Becoming an entrepreneur doesn’t always start with the launch of a company. Spending time in an established business, gaining experience and making contacts, can be invaluable. Very often, it’s the relationships you build during this time and the knowledge you accumulate that will help make your company a success.

Solving a problem

Everyone knows that launching a successful business means solving a burning problem, but what does that mean in practice? Aren’t all the burning problems already being addressed? And how do you attempt this without any money?

Thabo and Michel identified a small group of potential clients with a burning problem. Crucially, it was a problem that no one outside of the research field could have identified. Having spent years in the trenches, they saw a massive gap waiting to be filled.

Related: AutoTrader South Africa’s George Mienie Knows Disruptive Innovation Is More Than Shifting Gears

“A decade ago, researchers were still debating whether the future of the field was in the digital space. That debate is now over. Everyone agrees that online is the way to go. What once took months now takes days or hours, and the cost of research can be reduced by a factor of five,” says Michel.

“But researchers are not technology specialists. If made available, they are eager to adopt digital tools, but they aren’t eager to develop these tools themselves. That’s not their area of expertise.”

AfriTorch Digital stepped up to provide these tools. Katuta has a background in software engineering, so he could approach research problems with the eye of a tech specialist. Very soon, research agencies were lining up to make use of AfriTorch Digital’s services.

“We work with research agencies that conduct research on behalf of their clients. We provide the digital tools needed to conduct research online, and we provide the online communities. A big reason for our success is that we understand Africa. A lot of companies want to conduct research in Africa, but traditionally, this has been very hard. There was a lack of access and a lack of infrastructure that made research very hit-and-miss. Thanks to the continent’s adoption of mobile technology, it’s now much easier. If you have the technological know-how and an understanding of the environment, you can do amazing things,” says Michel.

The Lesson: Find a niche and own it. Research agencies might not have seemed like an obvious and lucrative market, but having spent time in the industry, the AfriTorch founders were able to identify clients who would be desperate for their offering. Spending time in an industry will help you see where the opportunities lie.


Take note

Before launching a business, get to know an industry from the inside out. This will give you an unparalleled view into gaps you can service.

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Jason English On Growing Prommac’s Turnover Tenfold And Being Mindful Of The ‘Oros Effect’

Rapid growth and expansion can lead to a dilution of the foundational principles that defined your company in its early days. Jason English of Prommac discusses how you can retain your company’s culture and vision while growing quickly.

GG van Rooyen

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jason-english-of-prommac

Vital stats

  • Player: Jason English
  • Position: CEO
  • Company: Prommac
  • Associations: Young President’s Organisation (YPO)
  • Turnover: R300 million (R1 billion as a group)
  • Visit: prommac.com
  • About: Prommac is a construction services business specialising in commissioning, plant maintenance, plant shutdowns and capital projects. Jason English purchased the majority of the company late in 2012, and currently acts as its CEO. Under his leadership, the company has grown from a small business to an international operation.

Since Jason English purchased Prommac in 2012, the company has experienced phenomenal growth. At the time he took over as owner and CEO, it was a small operation that boasted a turnover below R50 million.

Today, Prommac is part of a diversified group of companies under the CG Holdings umbrella and alone has grown it’s turnover nearly ten fold since Jason English took over. As a group, CG Holdings, of which Jason is a founder, is generating in excess of R1 billion. How has Prommac managed such phenomenal growth? According to Jason, it’s all about company culture… and about protecting your glass of Oros.

Jason English

Related: 5 Top Lessons From LAWTrust To Prepare For Super-Charged Growth

“As your business grows, it suffers from something that I call the Oros Effect. Think of your small start-up as an undiluted glass of Oros. When you’re leading a small company, it really is a product of you. You know everything about the business and you make every decision. The systems, the processes, the culture — these are all a product of your actions and beliefs. As you grow, though, things start to change. With every new person added to the mix, you dilute that glass of Oros.

“That’s not to say that your employees are doing anything wrong, or that they are actively trying to damage the business, but the culture — which was once so clear — becomes hazy. The company loses that singular vision. As the owner, you’re forced to share ‘your Oros’ with an increasing number of people, and by pouring more and more of it into other glasses, it loses the distinctive flavour it once had. By the time you’re at the head of a large international company, you can easily be left with a glass that contains more water than Oros.

“Protecting and nurturing a company’s culture isn’t easy, but it’s worth the effort. Prommac has enjoyed excellent growth, and I ascribe a lot of that success to our company culture. Whenever we’ve spent real time and money on replenishing the Oros, we’ve seen the benefits of it directly afterwards.

“There have been times when we have made the tough decision to slow growth and focus on getting the culture right. Growth is great, of course, but it’s hard to get the culture right when new people are joining the company all the time and you’re scaling aggressively. So, we’ve slowed down at times, but we’ve almost always seen immediate benefits in terms of growth afterwards. We focus heavily on training that deals with things like the systems, processes and culture of the company. We’ve also created a culture and environment that you won’t necessarily associate with engineering and heavy industries. In fact, it has more in common with a Silicon Valley company like Google than your traditional engineering firm.

“Acquisitions can be particularly tricky when it comes to culture and vision. As mentioned, CG Holdings has acquired several companies over the last few years, and when it comes to acquisition, managing the culture is far trickier than it is with normal hiring. When you hire a new employee, you can educate them in the ways and culture of the business. When you acquire an entire company, you import not only a large number of new people, but also an existing organisation with its own culture and vision. Because of this, we’ve created a centralised hub that manages all training and other company activities pertaining to culture. We don’t allow the various companies to do their own thing. That helps to manage the culture as the company grows and expands, since it ensures that everyone’s on the same page.

“Systems and processes need to make sense. One of the key reasons that drove us to create a central platform for training is the belief that systems and processes need to make sense to employees. Everyone should understand the benefits of using a system. If they don’t understand a system or process, they will revert to what they did in the past, especially when you’re talking about an acquired company. You should expect employees to make use of the proper systems and processes, but they need to be properly trained in them first. A lot of companies have great systems, but they aren’t very good at actually implementing them, and the primary reason for this is a lack of training.

“Operations — getting the work done — is seen as the priority, and training is only done if and when a bit of extra time is available. We fell into that trap a year ago. We had enjoyed a lot of growth and momentum, so we didn’t slow down. Eventually, we could see that this huge push, and the consequent lack of focus on the core values of the business, were affecting operations. So, we had to put the hammer down and refocus on systems, processes and culture. Today Prommac is back at the top of it’s game having been awarded the prestigious Service Provider of the year for 2017 by Sasol for both their Secunda and Sasolburg chemical complexes.

Related: Establishing The Wheels Of Change In Business

“If you want to know about the state of your company’s culture, go outside the business. We realised that we needed to ‘pour more Oros into the company’ by asking clients. We use customer surveys to track our own performance and to make sure that the company is in a healthy state. It’s a great way to monitor your organisation, and there are trigger questions that can be asked, which will give you immediate insight into the state of the culture.

prommac

“It’s important, of course, to ask your employees about the state of the business and its culture as well, but you should also ask your customers. Your clients will quickly pick up if something is wrong. The fact of the matter is, internal things like culture can have a dramatic effect on the level of service offered to customers. That’s why it’s so important to spend time on these internal things — they have a direct impact on every aspect of the business.

“Remember that clients understand the value of training. There is always a tension between training and operational requirements, but don’t assume that your clients will automatically be annoyed because you’re sending employees on training. Be open and honest, explain to a client that an employee who regularly services the company will be going on training. Ultimately, the client benefits if you spend time and money on an employee that they regularly deal with.

“For the most part, they will understand and respect your decision. At times, there will be push back, both from clients and from your own managers, but you need to be firm. In the long term, training is win-win for everyone involved. Also, you don’t want a client to become overly dependent on a single employee from your company. What if that employee quits? Training offers a good opportunity to swop out employees, and to ensure that you have a group of individuals who can be assigned to a specific client. We rotate our people to make sure that no single person becomes a knowledge expert on a client’s facility, so when we need to pull someone out of the system for training, it’s not the end of the world.

“Managers will often be your biggest challenge when it comes to training. Early on, we hired a lot of young people we could train from scratch. As we grew and needed more expertise, we started hiring senior employees with experience. When it came to things like systems, processes and culture, we actually had far more issues with some of the senior people.

“Someone with significant experience approaches things with preconceived notions and beliefs, so it can be more difficult to get buy-in from them. Don’t assume that training is only for entry-level employees. You need to focus on your senior people and make sure that they see the value of what you are doing. It doesn’t matter how much Oros you add to the mix if managers keep diluting it.”

Exponential growth

When Jason English purchased Prommac late in 2012, the company had a turnover of less than R50 million. This has grown nearly ten fold in just under five years. How? By focusing on people, culture and training.

key-insights-from-jason-english

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Who’s Leading Your Business Billy Selekane Asks – You Or The Monkey On Your Back?

You’re either a change-maker, or someone who is influenced by the shifting conditions around you. The truly successful know how to determine their own destinies. Here’s how they do it.

Nadine Todd

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billy-selekane

Vital stats

  • Player: Billy Selekane
  • Company: Billy Selekane and Associates
  • About: Billy Selekane is an author, internationally acclaimed inspirational keynote speaker, and a personal, team and organisational effectiveness specialist.
  • Visit: billyselekanespeaks.com

We live in a world of disruption. We live in a world where Airbnb’s valuation is $31 billion, but the Hilton’s market cap is $30 billion. Airbnb doesn’t own one square kilometre, and yet they’re worth more than the world’s biggest hotel chains with enormous assets. We live in a world where things have been turned upside down.

In this brave new world, you can either thrive, or fight to survive. As a leader in your organisation, the choices you make, the mental mind-space you occupy and how you engage with those around you, will determine your personal success, as well as that of your entire organisation.

“The business of business is people. You can’t just pay lip service to the idea that they are your most important asset. You need to live it. Leaders must be intelligent and honest. You can’t just push people to meet the numbers,” says Billy Selekane, personal and business mastery expert and international speaker.

The problem is that great leaders need to first find balance within, before they can successfully lead their organisations.

“Things can no longer be done the same way,” says Billy. “Success today is defined by people who are driven, are inspired by their own lives and goals, and have the power and capability to inspire others.” But before you can achieve any of this, you need to rid yourself of the monkey on your back.

Related: Billy Selekane

The monkey on your back

“If I continue doing what I’m doing, and thinking what I’m thinking, I’ll continue to have what I have,” says Billy. “That’s the definition of insanity. Are you doing things by default or design?”

Billy’s analogy is a simple one. It’s something we can all relate to, and it’s the single biggest thing stopping us from clearing our minds, focusing on the positive and achieving success. He calls it the monkey on our backs.

“Every one of us is born with an invisible monkey on their shoulder,” says Billy. “Your monkey is always with you. Sometimes they’re the one speaking, and you need to be careful of that.” What you need to be even more aware of than your own monkey though, is everyone else’s monkeys.

“Every interaction we have is an opportunity for what I call a monkey download. You have an argument with your spouse before work, and you end up getting into your car with not only your monkey, but theirs as well. Your irritation level has doubled thanks to the extra monkey. Now you get irritated with a pointsman, another driver or a taxi on your way to work. You’ve just added three monkeys.

“By the time you walk into the office, you’re bringing an entire village of monkeys with you. They’re clamouring, clattering, arguing with each other, and the noise is deafening. Not only does everyone get out of your way, but you can’t hear yourself think. And the more your mood drops, the more monkeys you download from the people around you. This is not the path to focus, achieving your goals or being happy. It’s certainly not the path to great leadership.

“Great leaders know how to keep all those monkeys out. They know how to control their moods, and regulate their own positivity. They understand that they are the architects of their own success.”

Getting out of the monkey business

To be a great leader — and personally successful and happy — you need to start by getting out of your own way, and as Billy calls it, ‘getting out of the monkey business.’ You need to not only shake your own monkey, but everyone else’s as well.

According to Billy, there are four simple areas you can begin focusing on today that will help you become the person (and leader) you want to be.

First, honesty is the foundation of everything else you should be doing. “Be clear and straight. Speak to people simply and honestly, but with respect. Connect with them, not through the head, but with the heart. Don’t play tricks.”

Related: 5 Top Lessons From LAWTrust To Prepare For Super-Charged Growth

Next, be authentic. All great leaders are authentic, and recognised as such. Aligned with this is integrity. “This is sadly out of stock, not only in South Africa, but the world,” says Billy.

“There is nothing as disturbing as a leader without integrity, and on a personal level, you won’t achieve emotional stability if you aren’t a person of integrity.”

Finally, you need to embrace love. “Wish your employees well. Wish your family, friends and connections well. When we are given love, and trusted to perform, we take that and pay it forward. In the case of business, this means your employees are giving the same love to customers, but if everyone showed a little more love, the world would be a better place. When people feel cared for, they show up with their hearts and wallets, and they pay it forward.

“Great leaders understand this. They don’t only focus on making themselves better, but adding to everyone around them. Remember this: In every business, there are no bad employees, just bad leaders. Employees are a reflection of that.”

If you want to build a better future, business or life, you need to start with yourself.


Do this

Stop letting negative thoughts and minor irritations derail you. You are the master of your moods and thoughts, so take personal responsibility for them.

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