South African companies have reported a significant increase in tax fraud and market fraud and to a lesser extent, insider trading as well, according to a new report issued by Professional Services Firm PwC today. Louis Strydom, head of PwC’s Forensic Services Practice, says that this increase is also reflected in a shift in the South African perpetrator profile towards senior management. In 2011, 36% of internal economic crimes were carried out by senior management, compared to only 17% in 2009. “These economic crimes require access to sensitive information and more sophisticated ‘know-how’ which senior management usually possess”.
“These crimes have previously not been as prevalent in South Africa and the increase could suggest that organisations need to revisit their fraud risk management frameworks to ensure that they are able to deal with the emerging threats.”
Latest crime survey results
The Global Economic Crime Survey, which is carried out every two years, was conducted among 3 877 senior representatives from more than 70 countries. In South Africa 123 organisations across 19 industries took part in the survey. The study shows that economic crime remains a challenge for business leaders worldwide, particularly in South Africa where 60 % indicated that they had experienced some form of economic crime in the 12 months preceding the survey, compared to the global average of 34%. On the positive side, the survey found that this overall prevalence of economic crime in South Africa has decreased from 83% in 2005.
The decrease in the overall incidence of economic crime is as a result of corresponding decreases in the misappropriation of assets, bribery and corruption and financial statement fraud. These three crimes have decreased steadily over the past six years. There can be a number of reasons for this. One of them may be that internal fraud risk management frameworks are making progress in South Africa and are getting better at detecting and preventing economic crime.
Further, given the focus of cybercrime in this year’s survey, some organisations may have classified other economic crimes involving the use of computers and the internet as cybercrimes instead.
Detection is key
Strydom says that detection is a key element in managing the risk of economic crime. The survey found that detection methods under management’s control were responsible for 69% of detections in South Africa, compared to 72% globally. This is encouraging as it vindicates the investment in anti –fraud controls. However, 14% of detections occurred by accident which means there is room for improvement locally.
The most effective detection methods were formal risk management procedures (including fraud risk assessments), automated suspicious transaction reporting (both contributed 16% of the detections) and internal audit (11%). The various tip-off methods (internal tip-off, external tip-off and formal whistle-blowing mechanisms), together contributed 20% of detections.
Given the effectiveness of formal fraud risk management structures, it is surprising that 28% of organisations had not performed a fraud risk assessment at all and 14% indicated that they were unsure whether any fraud risk assessment had been performed. The most common reason given by companies for not carrying out a fraud risk assessment was uncertainty about what such a risk assessment involves.
High levels of fraud
The countries that reported high levels of fraud (40% or more) include Kenya, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, suggesting that fraud is not only endemic in developing countries. Jurisdictions that reported low levels of fraud (25% or less) include Japan, Indonesia, Italy and Greece. However, these results can be affected or distorted by ineffective fraud detection methods or the reluctance of organisations in those countries to report fraud.
For the first time since PwC carried out the survey, economic crime in South Africa is being committed equally by internal and external perpetrators. Globally, the majority of crimes are still being committed by internal parties.
Overall South African organisations resorted to criminal and civil action more often than their global counterparts. However, with regard to the most serious economic crime committed by insiders, South African companies took no action in 6% of cases, opted for employee transfers in 3% or warnings in 14% of cases. Strydom says this is worrying as it suggests that these perpetrators still remain within the organisation and may be able to commit further transgressions. It is important for organisations to demonstrate zero tolerance for economic crime and set the right tone.
Cybercrime has emerged as a significant contributor to economic crime losses in South Africa and is considered the fourth most common economic crime after the misappropriation of assets, bribery and corruption, and financial statement fraud. South African respondents indicated that reputational damage and direct financial loss were their two main concerns with regard to cybercrime.
Based on the PwC study, 60% of organisations felt that the risk of cybercrime had increased in the past 12 months, compared to only 39% globally. Strydom noted, “46% of South African respondents see the threat of cybercrime as exclusively external. Cybercrime usually requires access to protected information. Employees, agents, contractors, customers and other individuals that have access to an organisation’s premises and systems are likely to have access to such information.” It is therefore important that organisations recognise cybercrime as an internal threat as well.
Based on the survey’s findings, South African companies and their global counterparts still have some way to go in dealing with cybercrime.
For instance, the findings also show that few organisations have all the elements of a holistic cybercrime prevention and response mechanism in place. Strydom says that one would expect the overall responsibility of addressing the risk of cybercrime, to lie with senior management. However, the survey shows that in 10% of South African organisations the respondents were unsure who should be tasked with this responsibility. A further 37% thought the chief information officer should be responsible.
This is an interesting observation, as the King 3 Report on Corporate Governance recommends that the board deal with IT, which includes IT security.
Despite the declining overall prevalence of economic crime in South Africa, the risk remains pervasive and South African organisations will need to remain vigilant, especially in these depressed economic conditions. Advances in technology are fast-paced, as are fraudsters. Those organisations ready to understand and embrace the risks and opportunities of the cyber world, will be the ones to gain competitive advantage in today’s technology driven environment. Establishing the right ‘tone at the top’ is key in the fight against economic crime.
For more information on the Global Economic Crime Survey, please visit: www.pwc.co.za/crimesurvey
Silver Linings For Smaller Businesses In Budget 2018
Comments by Pieter Bensch, Executive Vice President, Africa & Middle East at Sage.
As expected, the Finance Minister and Treasury have proposed some tough measures to address South Africa’s tax collection shortfall, growing budget deficit, and new spending priorities such as free education. Higher VAT, fuel levies and import duties on luxury goods will no doubt crimp consumer spending, which could be bad news for smaller businesses.
But we are pleased that the Finance Minister has raised his GDP growth projections and proposed interventions to help grow Small & Medium South African businesses. We welcome the steps government is taking to restore fiscal credibility, rein in spending, and hold off another credit ratings downgrade – it may be painful in the short term, but we should be rewarded in the longer term.
On small businesses, competition policy and market access
It was great to see the Finance Minister talk extensively about the hopes and concerns of entrepreneurs and small businesses in his Budget Speech today. We welcome his acknowledgement that low market access and high barriers to entry are constraining the growth of the country’s small businesses.
Minister Gigaba mentioned that government will take action against anti-competitive behaviour that harms these businesses.
That is a worthy goal, but we think we should also be looking more closely at how big businesses can play a constructive role in nurturing the growth of small businesses through mentoring and partnership. Small businesses are tomorrow’s customers, suppliers and employers, so it’s in everyone’s interest to grow this sector.
On small business funding
We heard more about the R2.1 billion fund Departments of Small Businesses and Science & Technology and the National Treasury are developing to benefit small and medium enterprises during the early start-up phase. It’s good news that government is investing in innovative startups, but it’s important that the funding is spent in an efficient and productive manner. Picking winners and losers isn’t easy, so we’d like to hear more details about how government will choose to allocate this money.
On public procurement
It makes enormous sense for government to use public procurement to support black economic empowerment, industrialisation and development of small businesses. We are glad to hear that government sees its billions of rand in procurement spend as a lever to empower small business owners – we look forward to more detail about how government will enable more small and micro businesses to participate in procurement opportunities. And of course, it’s critically important that government follows through on its promise to pay small businesses within 30 days of invoicing.
Cash flow is a major challenge for small businesses and few of them can afford to wait three to six months for payment on a big project.
Most consumers and businesses have been preparing themselves for a VAT increase in this budget. As unpalatable as many people will find the one-percentage point hike in the VAT rate, it was an obvious choice for a Finance Minister wanting to raise more revenue without dampening business investment or consumer spending.
The VAT hike will take some money out of people’s pockets, but will probably have less impact on business confidence than higher corporate taxes and less impact on consumer spending than further personal tax increases.
As expected, government has preserved the zero-rated status of some staples to lessen the impact on the poor. Small & Medium Businesses will need to make sure their systems are ready to cater for the new VAT rate, but this should not be too much of a challenge for those with automated accounting systems. By international standards, VAT in South Africa is still relatively low – we can just hope that this increase is not followed by another in the next year or two.
4 Budget Speech 2018 Outcomes To Know For Your Business
2018 Budget Speech commentary by Rob Cooper, tax expert and Director of Legislation at Sage.
The increases to taxes across the board are less painful than I expected. The general improvement to the fiscal framework and the reduction of expenditure by R86 billion over three years seem to have gotten us over the hump – for now, in any case.
1. Personal income tax
There were no surprises as far as personal income tax (PIT) is concerned. The top 45% rate remains unchanged and tax bracket creep relief is given only to those who earn below R410 000 per annum. Bracket creep in personal income tax, along with fuel levies, offers low-hanging fruit for the Finance Minister.
National Health Insurance
It’s good news that the Medical Tax Credit is still with us, even if it has received a below-inflation increase. This Medical Tax Credit is relatively small – especially with this year’s low increase – but it does help to make private medical cover affordable for millions of low-income South Africans.
2. Travel reimbursements
Great news for taxpayers and employers from the Budget: Government has scrapped the 12,000km a year limitation for using the prescribed rate per kilometre to calculate travel reimbursements. This will simplify travel reimbursement administration, but could open the door for increased levels of non-compliance in respect of travel reimbursements. On the whole, however, this will make life much easier for businesses.
3. Employment tax incentive
The Minister of Finance has decided that six special economic zones (SEZs) should be recognised by the ETI Act. Employers will thus be able to claim the Employment Tax Incentive for all employees working in one of these SEZs, irrespective of an employee’s age, but subject to qualification tests such as minimum wage and maximum remuneration. Outside of the SEZ, employers can only claim for the incentive for employees aged 18 to 29 years. This is a great way to generate more employment in the SEZs.
The VAT increase was expected and inevitable, and so were the VAT exemptions and increases to social grants the Finance Minister has applied to shield the poor from the impact of higher VAT.
Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs Takes On 30 New Businesses
22 Women and 20 men – attended a three-day induction at Tsogo Sun’s Crowne Plaza The Rosebank hotel in Johannesburg from 31 January to 2 February.
With new hope burgeoning throughout the South African business environment as fundamental political change sweeps through the country, the Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs programme has inducted 42 new beneficiaries from 30 different SMMEs for a year of intense training, coaching, mentorship and support – to assist them to professionalise and grow their businesses. This brings to 242 the total number of entrepreneurs supported by the programme.
The inductees – 22 women and 20 men – attended a three-day induction at Tsogo Sun’s Crowne Plaza The Rosebank hotel in Johannesburg from 31 January to 2 February. This represented the commencement of the programme’s 2018 development year, which incorporates the provision of customised analysis and strategic plans tailored to the specific needs of each enrolled business, business management courses provided by the University of Cape Town and facilitated by GetSmarter; Financial literacy courses through the Colour Accounting system, Microsoft Office courses, and Sales & Marketing training. The beneficiaries are each assigned a business analyst, a financial mentor and a leadership coach who work with them to implement their business strategies throughout the year.
This year’s class of 2018 entrepreneurs is made up of 30 small businesses operating in provinces across six provinces in South Africa in a diverse range of market sectors that include: tourism, ICT, cleaning, professional services, manufacturing, retail, health and beauty, agriculture and secretarial and administrative services. Candy Tothill, Tsogo Sun’s GM of Corporate Affairs, says “Part of the value of such a diverse group is that it creates opportunities for the businesses to trade with each other.”
She adds, “Job creation is increasingly crucial in South Africa, as unemployment has reached unprecedented levels, particularly among the youth. Through the Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs programme, we identify and assist people running their own businesses to professionalise their operations in an effort to make them viable employers who are sustainable businesses and contributors to the growth of the country’s economy. At the same time, we encourage them to be “conscious” consumers who procure local products and services and support each other by keeping it local and proudly South African. We are interested in changing their approaches from “managerial” mindsets to “leadership” mindsets, and so we motivate them to be fearless in their approach to growth with purpose. The programme provides them with the skills to enhance their strategic planning and performance and the wisdom to “pay it forward” by training them to become leaders in their communities. The role that the programme’s mentors and coaches play in instilling these values is of great significance to the achievement of our objectives.”
Belinda Francis, MD of Tych Solutions, a generalist recruitment agency based in Durban with offices in Johannesburg and Eastern Cape, was enthusiastic about joining the Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs programme. “Tsogo Sun is an amazing brand to be associated with, but more so, having met the team at a Supplier Showcase and heard others’ success stories, I was hungry to learn more and be a part of this journey. I don’t have an active partner and so I believe this programme will help to grow and empower me and my entire team even further. I am big on empowering and developing people and small businesses – and this will certainly create the platform for me to do so.”
Entrepreneur Carol Mlangeni, director of Enhle Creatives Photography & Design, also based in Durban, says she was browsing the internet looking for guidance on how to resolve issues within her company when she saw a Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs advertisement – and immediately responded. “I have issues within my business and I have been looking for answers on how to resolve them and grow my business and my brand awareness – I hope to achieve this through this programme.” Mlangeni adds that her future plans include providing job opportunities for “other aspiring enthusiasts like me”.
Thato Senosi is Founder of Magauta Designs and Projects, which supplies custom-made curtains, upholstery, and furniture repairs, and is based in Katlehong in Ekurhuleni. He was introduced to Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs by his mother, Carol Senosi, who joined the programme in 2016 and was a finalist in the Entrepreneur of the Year Awards. He says he joined the programme because
“I believe that entrepreneurship is a science, and one needs to put together all the necessary tools and formulas to build a successful business – and this programme offers that. My expectations this year are to identify missing formulas and find solutions, to be monitored and supported, and helped to become a great version of myself so I can inspire others, because no man is an island.”
His plans for the future include starting his own textile manufacturing company and bringing industry into the township to help combat some of the social challenges in his local community.
Says Tothill, “It’s encouraging to see the growing reach of Tsogo Sun Entrepreneurs throughout the country and in a diverse range of businesses, and we wish our new beneficiaries – the Class of 2018 – every success through the year as they discover new ways to develop themselves and their enterprises.”
Tsogo Sun has a portfolio of over 100 hotels and 13 casino and entertainment destinations throughout South Africa, Africa and the Seychelles. For more details, visit https://www.tsogosun.com, follow on Twitter @TsogoSun or like on Facebook /TsogoSun.
- New Fund For Small Businesses To Be Developed
- How To Think Like A Billionaire
- Relax Spas Founder Noli Mini Shares Her Insights On Building A Business Of Value
- What It Will Really Take For South Africa’s Businesses To Scale And Create Jobs
- Silver Linings For Smaller Businesses In Budget 2018
- Leadership: What Is Your Why? (Read Purpose)
- Start-Up Law: I’m A Start-up Founder. Can I Pay Employees With Shares?
Sign-up for Daily Newsletters
Start-up Industry Specific3 months ago
How Do I Start A Transport Or Logistics Business?
Company Posts1 month ago
Enhance Your Entrepreneurial Flair With An Online Postgraduate Diploma From The University Of Pretoria
Start-up Advice1 month ago
9 Quotes Every Entrepreneur Should Live By
Lessons Learnt1 month ago
15 Wise Insights From 15 Entrepreneurial Icons