Women’s entrepreneurship is on the rise globally. In the past year, 163 million women were starting businesses across 74 economies worldwide, while 111 million were running established businesses. This is according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2016/17 Women’s Report released today with sponsors Babson College, Smith College, Korea Entrepreneurship Foundation, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Universidad Del Desarrollo, and Universiti Tun Abdul Razak.
“This not only shows the magnitude of impact women entrepreneurs have across the globe, but highlights the contribution they make toward the growth and well-being of their societies,” said Babson College Professor and report co-author Donna Kelley. “Women entrepreneurs provide incomes for their families, employment for those in their communities, and products and services that bring new value to the world around them.”
Among the 63 economies surveyed in both this and the last report produced in 2014/2015, GEM found that Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) among women increased by 10%, and the gender gap (ratio of women to men participating in entrepreneurship) narrowed by 5%.
These same economies show an 8% increase in women’s ownership of established businesses, and across Europe, North America, and Asia, close on 10% increase in the positive perceptions that women have that there are good opportunities to start a business.
The 2016/17 GEM Women’s Report also adds a new consideration, notably that women are active entrepreneurial investors. While participation rates vary across different regions, the fact that more women are now investing in entrepreneurship is good news for business owners who will have stronger resource base on which to build.
Sub-Saharan Africa leads with highest TEA in the world
Female entrepreneurship rates vary significantly across the economies surveyed. GEM groups economies into five levels of economic development (using criteria identified by the World Economic Forum) and six geographic regions: East and South Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, North America, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa maintains the highest regional average TEA rate (25.9%) and strong average growth expectations, which translates into a lot of employment by women entrepreneurs in this region. On the flip side, however, it also sports the highest discontinuance rate (8.4%). Around 56% of women entrepreneurs in the region cite either unprofitability or lack of finance as a reason for closing down their business.
In South Africa, discontinuance rates are below the regional average at 5.2%. The vast majority of women entrepreneurs (71.6%) have also started a business because they are taking advantage of an opportunity rather than out of necessity suggesting that while TEA rates are the lowest in the region (5.9%), the types of businesses being started in South Africa are more sustainable. This is consistent with findings across the study that as levels of development increase (South Africa is classified as an efficiency-driven economy and is one of the best developed economies in the region), TEA rates decrease but so does business discontinuance.
Policy insight for better support of women entrepreneurs
GEM, now in its 18th year, has gained widespread recognition as the most authoritative longitudinal study of entrepreneurship in the world and, as such, it offers valuable insights to guide future research and policy decision-making as well as the design of interventions that can enhance female entrepreneurship, said GEM Executive Director Mike Herrington.
The data from this latest report highlights several key trends and paradoxes, he said. “As economic development and educational level increases, entrepreneurial participation among women declines and the gender gap increases, but business discontinuance also slows down. While the female discontinuance rate exceeds that of males in the first three levels of development, although only by about 10%, fewer women in highly developed innovation-driven economies have exited businesses, and at only two-thirds the rate of men.”
Also of note for policy makers is the finding that, on average, women exhibit a 20% or greater likelihood of citing necessity as a motive for starting a new business when compared to men – especially in the lesser developed economies. A positive finding is that that women entrepreneurs have a 5% greater likelihood of innovativeness compared to men. The highest level of innovation occurs in North America, where 38% of women report having innovative products and services.
While there are no clear cut answers in the report, the data provides an important foundation for the support of female business growth and the creation of both economic and social value around the world, commented Herrington.
“In many respects this report shows that women entrepreneurs across the world are more different than similar in terms of personal demographics, attitudes, and the types of businesses they run,” he said. “This suggests that support initiatives for women entrepreneurs need be tailored and customised per economy – rather than taking a one-size-fits-all approach.”
Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA)
- Among 63 economies (out of 74) featured in both this report and the previous one issued two years prior, overall female TEA rates have increased by 10 percent and the gender gap (ratio of women to men participating in entrepreneurship) narrowed by 5 percent.
o This continues the positive trend revealed in the previous report, which showed an average increase in female TEA rates of 7 percent and a narrowing of the gender gap by 6 percent over the prior two-year period among 61 economies.
- The 74 economies examined in this report show substantial differences in women’s TEA rates, ranging from 3 percent in Germany, Jordan, Italy, and France, to 37 percent in Senegal.
- In five of the economies, women participate at equal or higher levels than men.
o These high-parity economies come from two regions: Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam) and Latin America (Mexico and Brazil).
o None of these economies are at the innovation-driven stage of development, where, on average, women start at 60 percent the rate of men.
o The gender gap is greatest in Jordan, an efficiency-driven economy, where female entrepreneurship rates are about one-fourth the male level.
- On average, at all development levels, women exhibit a 20 percent or greater likelihood of citing necessity motives compared to men.
o However, opportunity motives account for the majority of entrepreneurs. Even in the factor-driven economies, there are over one and a half times as many opportunity as necessity entrepreneurs.
o This is even more pronounced in the innovation-driven group, where women are over three and a half times as likely to cite opportunity versus necessity motives.
- Entrepreneurial intentions increased among women by 16 percent from 2014 to 2016 across the 63 economies participating in both this report and the previous one.
o However, the gender gap is slightly narrower for entrepreneurial intentions than it is for TEA. This suggests that women’s intentions are closer to that of men compared to TEA.
o While not everyone’s intentions translate into action, the implication is that more women than men may be dropping off in this transition between phases.
Established Business Ownership
- Across these same economies, established business rates increased by 8 percent, on average.
o Additionally, the gender ratio improved by 9 percent.
o Like TEA, as economic development increases, established business activity among women declines and the gender gap increases.
- However, while there is greater demand for entrepreneurship in developing economies than in developed economies, comparatively fewer enterprises have transitioned to the mature stage.
o Women in innovation-driven economies, on the other hand, are less likely to start businesses than those in economies at earlier stages of economic development, but women who start are more likely to have sustainable businesses.
- Established business ownership among women is lowest in MENA.
o This region also reports the widest gender gap, where women are running established businesses at one-third the rate of men.
- Latin America also exhibits a wide gender gap in established business activity, which contrasts with a relatively narrow gender gap in TEA.
- The opposite effect can be seen in North America, which reports the narrowest regional gender gap in established business activity, despite showing a wide gap relative to men in TEA rates.
- In three Southeast Asian countries—Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia—established business ownership rates among women are equal to or higher than TEA rates.
o Additionally, there are equal or greater proportions of established business owners among women compared to men.
- Relative to TEA, the highest level of exits per entrepreneur is in the factor-efficiency transition stage, where there are four exits for every ten women starting or running a new business.
o This declines to a little over two exits for every ten female entrepreneurs in the innovation-driven economies.
- The female discontinuance rate exceeds that of males at the first three levels of development, although only by about 10 percent more.
o But given that women are less likely than men to be starting businesses, this means that, despite a smaller pool of businesses, there are more exits for women.
o On the other hand, very few women in innovation-driven economies have exited businesses, and at only two-thirds the rate of men.
- From a regional perspective, discontinuance is highest in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by Latin America.
o This is, of course, related to the fact that more women start businesses in these regions. But it appears that these women often struggle with unprofitability, and slightly more often than men.
o Sub-Saharan Africa also cites the highest level of finance issues associated with closing a business, compared to other regions.
- The highest participation in entrepreneurship among women can be seen in the 25-34 and 35-44 year olds.
o This is true, on average, across the development levels and regional groups. It is also the case among men.
o In general, the relationship between the genders with respect to entrepreneurship rates holds throughout the age groups, when viewing averages by development level and geographic region.
- While TEA rates tend to decline with development level, the proportion of entrepreneurs with a college or higher level of education increases. To some extent, this is reflective of the general population.
o A small proportion of female entrepreneurs (14 percent) in the factor-driven stage have at least a college degree, while the majority (61 percent) of those in the innovation-degree have this level of education.
- Parity with male entrepreneurs in education levels also increases with economic development.
o In the factor-driven stage, women entrepreneurs are about two-thirds as likely as males to have a post-secondary degree or higher.
o In the efficiency-driven and higher levels of economic development, women entrepreneurs are as likely, or more likely, to have reached this level of education.
o North America shows the highest education rates among women entrepreneurs, with 84 percent having earned a post-secondary or higher education.
o Europe is notable for having more highly educated women than men entrepreneurs: 22 percent more, on average.
Attitudes and Affiliations
- Opportunity perceptions range from 57 percent of women in the factor-driven economies believing there were good opportunities around them, down to 39 percent holding these beliefs in the innovation-driven group.
- The gender gap on this indicator is relatively narrow, however; overall, opportunity perceptions among women are at 90 percent of male perceptions.
- While 67 percent of those at the factor-driven stage believe they have the capabilities for starting businesses, this declines to just under 35 percent among the innovation-driven economies.
- Additionally, the gender gap in capabilities perceptions is widest in the innovation-driven economies, at just over two-thirds the level reported in men.
Personal Affiliations with Entrepreneurs
- Despite the high visibility of entrepreneurs in American culture, only 27 percent of women in this country know one.
o A similar percentage is reported in Europe.
- In contrast, over half the women in sub-Saharan Africa personally know an entrepreneur.
- What appears to stimulate personal connections are simply the presence of entrepreneurs in one’s community. In the lower economic development levels, with high TEA rates, more than half of women know an entrepreneur personally. This declines to just over 30 percent in the innovation-driven group.
- On average, across the entire sample, 10 percent of women entrepreneurs operated their businesses solely and had no intentions to add any employees in the next five years.
- In over three-fourths of the economies, women were as likely, or more likely, than men to have self-employment businesses.
- Europe has the highest frequency of one-person female business activity, while North America, containing two advanced economies, has the lowest.
- In Netherlands, half of the women entrepreneurs were operating solely, nearly two and a half times the frequency of men in this country.
- Across the regions, the lowest average female growth expectations can be found in Latin America.
o While there are many entrepreneurs in this region, proportionately few expect to grow their businesses.
o Additionally, there is a wide gender gap, with growth expectations barely reaching 60 percent of the male level.
- Interestingly, although sub-Saharan Africa also has a wide gender gap on this indicator, average growth expectations are higher than in Latin America.
o Together with the highest regional average TEA rate, this translates to a lot of employment by entrepreneurs in this region.
- The MENA region reports the highest average female growth expectations at 37 percent, and with the highest gender parity, where women with growth expectations are just under 80 percent of the male rate.
- Over half of the women entrepreneurs in UAE, Qatar and Tunisia expect to hire six or more employees in the next five years. Moreover, women in Saudi Arabia and Morocco are more likely than men to have these ambitions.
- Innovation levels increase with economic development, with the innovation-driven economies exhibiting a substantial jump from the other development levels.
- Overall, innovation represents the indicator with the greatest female-to-male gender ratio; across all 74 economies, women entrepreneurs have a 5 percent greater likelihood of innovativeness compared to men.
- The highest level of innovation occurs in North America, where 38 percent of women report having innovative products and services.
- In sub-Saharan Africa, on the other hand, 18 percent of women state their offerings are innovative. Yet both regions, as well as Europe, show gender parity.
- Among entrepreneurs in MENA, women not only report high innovation levels, but are 60 percent more likely than men to state their offerings are innovative, with seven of the ten countries in this region reporting higher innovation levels among female than male entrepreneurs.
- The level of international sales varies dramatically, spanning from zero or less than 1 percent in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Guatemala, and Ecuador) and three Asian countries (Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam) to over three-fourths of women entrepreneurs in the UAE and over half in Saudi Arabia.
- On average, more than one-fifth of women entrepreneurs in innovation-driven economies state that 25 percent or more of their sales are to customers outside their economies. This is four times the level of the factor-driven group.
- Regionally, only 6 percent of sub-Saharan African women entrepreneurs are internationally-oriented, and this is somewhat more than half the level of men. On the other hand, 29 percent of women entrepreneurs in MENA are considered international, and at a higher rate than men.
- Wholesale/retail trade accounts for about 60 percent of female entrepreneurial activity among the first three development levels.
o By comparison, at the highest level of development—among the innovation-driven economies—only one-third of women entrepreneurs compete in this sector.
o This is fairly consistent with male participation in this sector; across the entire sample, women entrepreneurs are just 16 percent more likely to be starting wholesale/retail businesses.
- Over half of women entrepreneurs in the innovation-driven group are in government, health, education, and social services.
o This is the business category that women entrepreneurs dominate relative to men at all development levels.
o On average across the entire sample, they are two and one-fourth times more likely to be starting in this sector.
- Where women are less likely to be seen in the entrepreneurship ranks, is in the ICT sector. Overall, fewer than 2 percent are starting business here, amounting to a little more than one-fourth that of males on average.
- Overall, 4.6 percent of women in the 74 economies provided finance to entrepreneurs in the past three years.
o This ranges from 1 percent in Morocco to 16 percent in Cameroon.
o Entrepreneurial investment in the innovation-driven economies is a little more than one third the level reported in the factor-driven group.
- While male investment rates also decline with economic development level, this decrease is not as steep as it is for female investors, leaving a wider gender gap with higher levels of development.
o Overall, women invest in entrepreneurs at less than two-thirds the rate of men.
- About 5 percent of women in North America, Latin America, MENA, and Asia have personally provided funds to entrepreneurs.
o The other two regions, however, show contrasting results. Only 3.5 percent of women are entrepreneurial investors in Europe, while 9 percent in sub-Saharan Africa have funded entrepreneurs.
AlphaCode Awards R16 Million To Fintech Start-ups In One Of SA’s Richest Start-up Initiatives
This R2 million scale up accelerator offers mentorship, expert guidance and support services to help these more established businesses to scale and create jobs.
Last night, Rand Merchant Investment Holding (RMI), through AlphaCode, awarded entrepreneurial packages valued at R16 million to eight of South Africa’s most promising financial services start-ups. The entrepreneurial packages consist of R1 million in grant funding and R1 million in support, which includes mentorship, monthly expert-led sessions, exclusive office space in Sandton, marketing, legal and other business support services as well as access to the broader RMI network.
The AlphaCode Incubate initiative, in partnership with Merrill Lynch South Africa and Royal Bafokeng Holdings, identifies South African financial services entrepreneurs with extraordinary ideas and businesses that could impact the financial services industry. More than 200 start-ups applied to participate. Of these, sixteen made it to final pitch evening and eight recipients were selected.
The eight winning businesses are:
|Akiba Digital||A gamified mobile app making it easier and more rewarding to set, manage and meet savings goals.||Tebogo Mokwena and Kamogelo Kekana||https://bit.ly/2yOjYoX
|ISpani Group||Provides access for insurers into traditionally under insured communities through prepaid vouchers and USSD sold by a network of spaza shop vendors.||Prince Nwadeyi, Khathazile Moroe, Patrick Machekera and Louis Buys||https://bit.ly/2CrgbkE
|Jamii||De-risks tenant rent default through offering tenants incentive-based discounts on food and transport and bolt-on retrenchment cover.||Adrian Taylor, Marc Maasdorp and Bartek Dutkowski||https://bit.ly/2ytdc8F
|Nisa Finance||An invoice financing platform that enables financiers to issue invoice-backed loans to SMEs quickly and affordably by fully-automating the application and invoice verification through ERP system integration.||Thando Hlongwane, Tekane Ledimo and Sinqobile Mashalaba||https://bit.ly/2yptcIW
|Pago||A low cost mobile micro payments platform for the informal sector to enable an inclusive economy by digitising remittances through the use of blockchain technology.||Philip Mngadi and Noel Lynch||https://bit.ly/2S1QKvn
|Prospa||A mobile savings wallet for low-income earning South Africans that makes it easy to save small amounts infrequently using prepaid vouchers.||Dhanyal Davidson and Carl Ngwenya||https://bit.ly/2JbwbJf
|SELFsure||Enables millennials to significantly reduce car insurance premiums by self-insuring part of the risk via peer to peer lending.||Proud Chitumba, Amos Mugova and Tshepiso Shamane||https://bit.ly/2J6HVfV
|Yalu||A self-service credit life insurance platform which replaces a customer’s current policy with a more affordable, simpler and rewarding policy.||Nkazi Sokhulu, Tlalane Ntuli, Steve Goeieman and Life Mhlanga||https://bit.ly/2PH87QF
The programme has disbursed R13 million in funding to 15 black-owned financial services businesses since it began three years ago. “Some have experienced exponential growth and we have been amazed at the level of traction they have received locally and internationally. The intention behind AlphaCode’s Explore, Incubate and Accelerate programmes is for RMI to discover the next OUTsurance or Discovery; we want to identify, partner and grow the future of financial services in South Africa,” says Dominique Collett, head of AlphaCode and a RMI senior investments executive.
During the event, contestants had just three minutes to pitch their businesses, with a couple of minutes set aside for questions from a formidable panel of judges. These included Phuti Mahanyele, CEO of Sigma Capital; Raymond Ndlovu, investment executive, Remgro; Nakedi Ramaphakela, finance director, Royal Bafokeng Holdings; Anthony Knox, MD Investment Banking of Merrill Lynch South Africa and Dominique Collett.
Julie Benadie, regional executive of Operations and Corporate Affairs at Merrill Lynch explained: “We believe in supporting disruptive ideas so that creative fintech solutions will emerge to address the challenges that South Africa faces. We want South Africa to become a fintech centre of excellence with its already advanced financial services infrastructure.”
The AlphaCode Incubate programme deals with common challenges that financial services startups face. All participants are early stage businesses, under two years old and at least 51% owned by black South Africans.
“AlphaCode is also now also seeking additional fintech entrepreneurs for our Explore programme. This offers a 12-month data science and business skills programme for 20 aspirant South African fintech entrepreneurs in conjunction with The Explore Data Science Academy,” Collett added.
Candidates will go through an intensive six-month data science-training programme, where they will learn how to design a 10X business along with the core digital skills needed to build a fintech organisation. This will be followed by three-months of business skills training. Interested fintech entrepreneurs should apply at www.alphacode-explore10x.club by 30 October 2018.”
In addition, AlphaCode recently selected four more established fintech businesses for its Accelerate programme: Entersekt, Livestock Wealth, Click2Sure and Invoice Worx. This R2 million scale up accelerator offers mentorship, expert guidance and support services to help these more established businesses to scale and create jobs.
The Sky Is The Limit For South Africa’s Top Women Achievers
High-powered women achievers from across the private and public sectors, academia and diplomatic spheres gathered for a charged two-day conference in Johannesburg this week to share experiences about empowerment, achievement and the role that women are destined to play in a competitive global environment.
Several hundred women attended the 15th Annual Standard Bank Top Women Conference which, with the Top Women Awards, has become one of the premier events for women on the national calendar. The objective of the gathering at the Maslow Hotel on the 17th and 18th of October, was to showcase the achievements of South African women and reignite their passion as they have major roles to play in all arenas of endeavour, says Ethel Nyembe, head of Card Issuing at Standard Bank.
“The delegates to the Top Women Conference were inspired by speakers such as Yvonne Chaka Chaka, singer, songwriter and an entrepreneur in her own right; Phuti Mahanyele, executive chair of Sigma Capital, a black-owned investment group, and political and academic stalwart Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi, now Chancellor of Nelson Mandela University and other women who are playing leading roles in many of the nation’s listed blue-chip corporations.”
“The overall message is that women are playing a central role in growing all facets of our economy and are helping to build a future from which other women can benefit and, in turn, inspire others. Women, regardless of whether they are entertainment icons, professionals engaged in helping shape the minds of future generations, businesswomen or scientists are part of building a new global reality.”
To inspire delegates about the breadth and depth of the future for women, the conference examined all facets of economic life from the impact that IT and scientific research is having on building businesses, through to the development of entrepreneurs and leadership skills. Insights were offered through the contributions of speakers and roundtable panel discussions in which leading women offered observations and advice gathered from their vast experience.
“Standard Bank is proud of the role it has played in enabling women achievers to reach their full potential within its ranks. The bank also recognises that women across society have a broad role to play in the future of South Africa. It is through support for events like the Top Women Awards and the Top Women Conference that this approach is made visible and tangible.”
“We expect this year’s conference deliberations to deliver insights and inspiration that will not only spur established women to new heights of achievement, but also stimulate young women starting new careers,” says Ms Nyembe.
The Ins And Outs Of A Good Exit Strategy
The thought of parting with a business you’ve grown from the ground up may be unsettling, but Gugu Mjadu, spokesperson for the 2018 Entrepreneur of the Year® competition sponsored by Sanlam and BUSINESS/PARTNERS, says that it is better for both your business and yourself to plan for this as early as possible.
“The challenge that business owners often face in this respect is comparable to the difficulty that many new parents have with imagining their children grown up and leaving for university. Imagine, however, if parents did not plan ahead for the cost of their education – that would be detrimental to the future of their children. The same could be the case for your business.”
Mjadu says that a good exit strategy is about sustainability and being able to measure your business performance against the goals you have set for it. “It’s really about being able to say, ‘this is when the work is done and I can exit the business or take on a different role – this is what success looks like in terms of monetary return on investment and other business growth indicators’.
“The lack of an exit strategy could be telling of a fundamental lack of measurable business goals and this needs to be addressed,” she says.
From immediate liquidation to liquidation over time; family succession; selling to staff or external investors; the open market or another business; or the gruelling but profitable exercise of taking your company public – there are many different ways in which an entrepreneur can exit their business, but Mjadu says that whatever the process, a strong and solid strategy is essential.
She shares five key points of a good exit strategy:
1. It tells you when you are done
Mjadu says that a good exit strategy should reflect a core understanding of all the intricacies of your business and should be able to tell you when the lifecycle of your business (or of your involvement in the business) should come to an end. This is usually done by including a set of tangible measurables or objectives so that it is easy to ascertain when these have been achieved.
2. It sets out the right environment within which to exit
A good exit strategy considers the economic, social and political environment at the time of your exit. Mjadu says that this is important in order to plan for a secure financial future.
“Failure to think about this could result in short-changing yourself by exiting during a tough economic climate when the risk to buyers reduces the value of your business.”
She references the case of Victoria’s Secret when founder, Roy Raymond, sold the failing business for $1m unknowing that it would later grow into the multi-billion dollar empire it is now. “While Raymond’s exit was ultimately necessary for Victoria’s Secret’s growth, he sold it in 1982 during the global recession of the early eighties – one of the world’s biggest financial crises and this influenced the selling price at his exit”.
3. It compensates those who have contributed to the life of your business
It is important to consider the impact your exit could have on investors and staff, says Mjadu. “Closing shop for example, means that your staff no longer have employment at your business. Selling could mean the same.” She adds that it is important to consider ways in which your exit could also benefit these stakeholders – for example, selling to a bigger business could mean more career opportunities for your staff, as well as continued job security.
4. It compensates you
Mjadu says that entrepreneurs often struggle to recognise their own true worth, especially when this involves attaching a monetary value to what has been achieved. “The time of exiting a business is no place to short-change yourself. You need to get out the full worth of what you put in,” she says, explaining that this means ensuring that you are financially secure before and while you go into your next venture.
“Your needs for retirement and medical insurance, as well as the maintenance of your living standard, should be met at your exit.”
5. It sustains your entrepreneurial drive
Mjadu says that while you may be nearing the end of one journey, your exit should enable and encourage you to continue to be an entrepreneur – and to look forward to the next journey. “Your entrepreneurial skills and capacity do not end when you exit your business and whatever your strategy, it should egg you on to more entrepreneurial activity including becoming a mentor to aspiring entrepreneurs.”
Mjadu says that exiting your business should allow you a good retrospective look at what you have done over the years – and so planning the strategy early on in your business lifecycle will set you up in regards to what you hope to achieve. “Upon exit, you should be able to say that you have done what you set out to do, financially and socially, and you have some energy left to do more elsewhere.”
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